1.24. Councils for operation of the car

Durability of the car
Durability of the car in many respects depends on style of driving therefore we will discuss how we go and as it is not necessary to go if, of course, there is desire to preserve both the car, and money.
Going on the car to work or to a business trip, try to count how many times you should use coupling, the transmission and brakes. So far the car as it should be, seldom to whom comes to mind to pay attention to how these or those governing bodies are used. Of course, it is simple to change, say, till time the erased brake shoes. And here it is necessary to tinker with replacement of brake drums or disks. And it is absolutely difficult to cope with worn-out details of coupling or the transmission.
Nothing, of course, in the car is eternal. But if you, let us assume, unfairly often use coupling, maneuvering in a dense city stream, and do not remove a leg from a pedal, even standing on the traffic light, the put 80 thousand km of a run a clutch plate will not serve, certainly. Its early replacement will not save situation: in line premature failure of plates of "basket" of coupling and the bearing of switching off of coupling which from thoughtless operation of transmission simply "dries" and breaks "basket"...
The same can be told also about the transmission. Most "patient" of domestic – the "Zhigulyovsk" transmission – is capable "to otjezdit" both 150, and 200 thousand km without repair; transmissions of the Audi cars are slightly more capable to serve. But the dashing management of a box which is followed by breakthroughs of the lever from one situation in another long before term puts synchronizers out of action. And it though not the most difficult, but repair. Therefore patient drivers, switching transfers, use a technique "into three accounts", that is as if about themselves tell "time, two, three" when translating the lever from one situation in another.
However, the "athletes" preferring quickly "to take straight away" should pay off not only the failing steering and ahead of schedule worn-out rubber. At such style of driving huge loading is the share of drive details – hinges of equal angular speeds, bearings, a clutch plate, not to mention the engine. No doubt, the modern cars equipped with powerful motors can go some time as sports. But they are not intended for "sports" loadings if, of course, this is not about the "single" car.
What to do if nevertheless there is a need "to tear" the motor, being chosen on the become limp road or slipping in sand or on ice? Skilled drivers know how to arrive in similar cases: they create the conditions increasing its passability for the car. It is enough to reduce pressure in tires of driving wheels to one atmosphere considerably to improve coupling of wheels with the surface of the dirt road. And on the front-wheel car surpassing the car of classical configuration in passability, difficult sites of dirt roads overcome, moving a backing.

Preparation of the car for winter
It is optional to implement all councils and recommendations given below independently. If there is no desire to potter – there are service stations and professional master. But you have to represent what needs to be made with the car, to accurately explain it to the master, and sometimes and to track that everything was made properly.
Tires
On snow and ice do not walk in sandals – the car for the winter should be changed too. About winter rubber is written much therefore we will remind shortly only highlights.
Tires with marking are intended for winter operation: "M+S" ("Mud + Snow" means dirt + snow), "W" ("Winter", or winter). These inscriptions sometimes are followed by pictograms in the form of a snowflake or a cloudlet.
It is better to choose tires a little already, than those which you use in the summer, – it is natural, within the range of the sizes, admissible for your car. The protector has to press through snow and mud porridge to a hard coating, narrow tires cope with such task better.
It is undesirable to use all-weather tires in the winter – those that are marked by the AS indexes ("All Seasons" – all seasons) or "AW" ("Any Weather" – any weather).
"Winter" opportunities at them weak; all-weather in the true sense of the word they can be considered only if it is about low-snow Europe, but not about Russia.
Snow tires on ice and snow hold better, than not studded. But on pure asphalt when braking on thorns the probability of blocking of wheels, a drift and a brake way increases: steel thorns not bad slide on asphalt. Danger consists also that drivers blindly trust in thorns and, braking on asphalt, expect from them the same death grip, as well as on ice. By the way, not snow winter snow tires of new generations on a slippery surface behave not worse, than studded.
Some drivers put snow tires only on driving wheels in the winter. And on conducted leave... summer. Do not do so, it is dangerous. On the slippery road the probability of demolition of not studded couple of wheels is very high even in rather harmless situations – coefficients of coupling and resistance to side withdrawal too strongly differ.
Engine
The main problem in the winter – launch of the cold engine. More often it arises in relation to carburetor motors, but in a hard frost it also the owner of the car can face the engine equipped with system of injection. The reasons are known – the thickened oil, falling of capacity of the accumulator and bad evaporation of gasoline. We will consider oils and accumulators separately for now several words about experience of the countries with a frigid climate where prestarting electric heaters, such "boilers" in the engine cooling system are widely applied. Drove up to the house or office, thrust a fork in the socket, turned on the timer... By the necessary time the engine will be heated-up, and some designs of heaters provide also warming up of salon.
Electric devices of heating are presented several years also at the Russian market. The Finnish heaters which can be completed with timers enjoy the greatest popularity.
The main lack of electroheating consists that at the house or office it is necessary to have a special guard with the socket. An exit – an autonomous heater and uses liquid fuel which is built in the cooling system of the engine too by the principle of the boiler. As fuel for it serves gasoline or diesel fuel depending on what the engine of your car works at.
The advantage of systems of heating consists also that at their application the engine resource increases. Each launch of the cold motor at a temperature of -20 °C is equivalent to a run of 800 km. By the way, according to modern views the motor will reach working temperature quicker, and its wear will be less if after start-up to do not stand still, and to begin the movement as soon as possible, avoiding, of course, excessive load of the engine.
Oil
Oil replacement is usually prozvodit in a binding to a car run, but not by a season. Vast majority of modern engine oils in a varying degree all-weather. It is considered that it is necessary to fill in what is offered the producer in the maintenance instruction of the car. But winters happen different – both warm slushy, and frosty. And it is absolutely not clear whether the producer assumed that its car will be operated in the conditions of the Russian winter and that oil will be required to it "more cold".
If you decided to depart from requirements of the instruction, at the choice of oil it is possible to use simple method of definition of its temperature suitability – for secure. Let's call this reception "rule 35".
Marking of engine oil has to include designation of a class of its viscosity on SAE scale. For example: 15W-40. It means that this oil on viscosity at a "minus" temperature meets requirements imposed to winter oils of a class 15W, and at "plus" – to summer oils of a class 40.
Remember number "35". If to subtract a "winter" index of a class of viscosity (in our example it is "15") from it, then the size called by the extreme temperature of pumpability i.e. temperature at which oil still keeps fluidity will turn out: 35–15=20. Means, oil 15W-40 can use at a temperature up to -20 °C.
Respectively, the less "winter" index of a class of viscosity, the oil is "colder": 10W – to –25 °C; 5W – to –30 °C.
It is also "rule 35" – simple and useful.
Rechargeable battery
Struck a frost, and the accumulator which still yesterday was vigorously twisting a starter flatly refuses to do it. Anything surprising: when you loaded its last time?
If the accumulator "is rather young" (up to 3–4 years), then in anticipation of winter it is enough to be washed up outside, to clear plugs and to load completely (if the car was constantly operated in the city, the battery charge, for certain, is far from nominal). If the accumulator old and to nominal capacity is not charged, change without thoughts, otherwise in the winter it will bring you – capacity and so strongly also the increased energy consumption falls with fall of temperature, and here: heater, heating of seats, light, "janitors", heater of back glass...
By estimates of experts, the average duration of "full-fledged life" of the rechargeable battery makes about 12 months, gradual "withering" begins further. And the peak of sales of starter batteries, according to sellers, is necessary just for the fall.
Times when the car owner was rushed off the feet in search of the new accumulator, passed long ago: from a variety of trademarks and models on shelves of shops flickers before eyes. What to choose – a personal record of everyone. Let's note only that in the market it is possible to allocate two price groups now: batteries worth over $60 (usually to $100), for example Bosch, Steco, American, Fiamm, and accumulators at the price below $60 (Mutlu, Inci, Centra, SAEM, etc.).
Higher prices of batteries of the first group are defined by more perfect technology of their production. These accumulators, as a rule, belong to the category of unattended. Special types of electrolytes and tight execution of such batteries increase their resource and provide the high starter currents guaranteeing a provorachivaniye of a bent shaft of the engine even at hard frosts. The leading producers now without fail use technology of packing of plates therefore it is possible to avoid short circuit of the battery in case of their destruction.
Cheaper accumulators demand periodic service – check of density of electrolyte and measurement of its level.
Often upon purchase of the new battery try to choose capacity more if only the battery got on the place allocated for it. But capacity not the main thing. Far more important starter current which is provided by the battery. Even at the high-capacity accumulator this indicator (because of big own resistance) can be shown below, than at the accumulator of smaller capacity. Besides, the high-capacity battery needs higher current of charging which the generator of your car will not provide, and the battery will be discharged in use more and more that is deplorable will affect the term of its service.
Upon purchase of the battery differing from regular pay attention to an arrangement of its plugs: accumulators of "the return polarity" which plugs wires of your car can not reach come across.
System of ignition
Before approach of winter do not forget about high-voltage wires. After few years of driving on our "salty" roads it is desirable to replace them, it is the best of all on wires with a silicone cover which are less sensitive to temperature drops. Besides, on them hoarfrost which often happens the reason of lack of a spark is not formed. Corrosion or a bad inhaling of plugs of the rechargeable battery can be the banal cause of malfunctions in system of ignition.
Separately – about candles. Usually they are changed by each 15–20 thousand km, i.e. once in one and a half years (some supermodern candles maintain 100 thousand km of a run and more). You should not save on candles (to calcinate, clean and regulate gaps). Replace candles at least once a year – it is inexpensive. Establish new candles in anticipation of winter.
Power supply system
Quite often the power supply system is the reason of unsatisfactory operation of the engine in winter time. And all because of the water condensate which accumulated in the fuel tank. If in a tank there is a drain stopper, water can just be merged; if is not present, then "to neutralize", having applied so-called displacers of moisture. Practically all leading producers of auto chemical goods (STP, Loctite, Wynns, Aspokem) offer similar medicines: filled in in the fuel tank, they gradually clear a power supply system.
Will not be superfluous to put also the new filter of thin purification of fuel, to be convinced of purity of nozzles.
Body
Winter not the best season for the car, especially at movement along the streets which are plentifully salted. During this period the body as much as possible is exposed to corrosion therefore its anticorrosive processing is very desirable. However, according to the staff of some authorized service stations, for a number of new foreign cars, especially with a galvanized body, factory processing is quite enough.
Anticorrosive processing demands strict observance of technology, and though practically all producers of protective materials let out them in packing for household application, after all it is more preferable to carry out processing in the specialized service center. Costs in advance
to find out on what technology it is carried out. Anyway before drawing a sheeting on the bottom and arches the car has to be cleared of dirt, is washed up and dried carefully up.
Winter – hard test and for a paint and varnish covering of a body. Sharp temperature drops, snow mixed up with salt, an ice crust – all this leads to emergence of microcracks on paint. The surface of a body can be protected the special structures suitable for use at low temperature, for example Plus Teflon or Color Magic. Processing carry out by these medicines approximately once a month after an obligatory wash of the machine and its drying.
The question of where to hold the car in the winter, actually usually is not necessary: those who have a garage keep it in a garage, those at whom is not present, – on the street. Strangely enough, from the point of view of
(from corrosion, but not from theft) between trips and it is one night better for safety of a body to leave the car on the street – at a cold body process of corrosion goes more slowly. In a cold garage of heat generated by the car is enough for that to warm it a little, and the melted snow with salt some time actively does the dirty deed. And in a warm garage even if you carefully washed the car from salt from below, it will stand all night long wet...
Glasses
Visibility – not only comfort, but also safety. Therefore it is hardly worth reminding that screen wipers, having blown and heating of glasses have to be serviceable. Safely throw out the brushes leaving opaque strips on glass. And buying new, try to choose company – Bosch, ITE, Champion, etc. Inhabitants of northern regions can try the warmed brushes which are connected to onboard network; they were available for sale not so long ago.
Now directly about glasses. It is better to entrust their survey to the expert, but also personal control will not prevent. Even the small chip on a windshield in the first frost after an autumn rain will turn into a full-fledged crack. The existing technologies of repair allow to eliminate similar defect without glass removal. It is simpler and cheaper, than replacement flew down.
One more "winter" problem – fogging of glasses. At serviceable system of ventilation arises seldom, but... Use of liquids-antizapotevateley, for example Anti-Fog or Never Fog which are enough to be applied on glass of times a week helps.
Operational materials
All expendables, including antifreeze and hydraulic liquids in drives of brakes and couplings, have the service life. If there are though slightest doubts, it is not necessary to select a portion of the antifreeze which grew brown or become green from an old age from a radiator and to put it on test in a deep freeze. Replace antifreeze. Also do not save, buying doubtful medicines without labels and certificates, – will be more expensive.
It is necessary to approach also the choice of nonfreezing liquids for washers of glasses not less carefully. It in rural areas at –20 °C under wheels dry and pure snow. And in Moscow even into a hard frost – dirty fat swill which brushes willingly smear on glass, turning into an opaque whitish film. Therefore a liquid reserve in a windshield washer reservoir – an indispensable condition of safe driving. But buying liquid which temperature of freezing of -20 °C, be not under a delusion and do not dilute it even if on the street of -10 °C. Practice shows that on the run of liquid with a temperature of freezing of -40 °C stiffen on a windshield even in a ten-degree frost if not to warm glass (to a question of serviceability of system of ventilation and heating).
Nonfreezing liquids for a windshield washer, as a rule, contain additives which effectively delete dirt and purify glass. Some of them, however, excessively foam, but also they it is much better, than cheap vodka which some prefer to fill in in a tank.

Operation of tires
Tires on any car wear out unequally and unevenly. It is caused by its design (for example, conducting and operated are loaded more), technical condition of a suspension bracket (saylentblok, springs, shock-absorbers) and other reasons.
That tires (including "spare wheel") in use wore out at the same time and evenly, manufacturers recommend to interchange the position of wheels at everyone THAT, that is through 10–15 thousand km of a run. However each tire, getting on the new place, at first it is earned extra, and it not always passes without consequences. Let's tell, at it external paths remained better. Having risen to the place of that where the same paths are more worn-out, it will quickly wipe the as they at first will be loaded stronger than worn-out internal. Similar extra earnings of tires "eats" that the most part of a resource (hodimost), than technical condition of the car, first of all is worse than a suspension bracket. Besides, after repair of a running gear or adjustment of disorder convergence of wheels will stand on hind legs of wear of the tire remaining on the old place whether something changed here.
Considering all this, skilled motorists interchange the position of tires through 25–30 thousand km of a run, i.e. one-two times before failure. In this case it is possible to replace (and to buy) not at once all set of tires that suits many.
The recommended pressure in tires
The recommended pressure in tires is specified on the sticker located on inside of the hatch of a bulk mouth of the fuel tank. Pressure in tires 155/80 R13, 175/70 R13 and 185/60 R14 has to make 2,1 kg/s.

The car is not started
Your hardware has to be faultless – time which you have, it is the same money which, we hope, at you is too. Do not lose either that, or another. If goodness knows where the gone tie or the pant leg burned by the iron can become the reason of failure of a business meeting, what then to speak about the car which does not want to be started for an hour before the appointed negotiations.
Early in the morning, just shaved and full of great plans, you jump in the car, "a key on start" and... What for the devil?! Once more. Still... Nervous manipulations with a key in the lock of ignition and pedals of success do not bring. Day is spoiled from the very beginning. Plans and mood – "are up the spout".
Calm down. It is not necessary to rush in the English suit under a cowl and, smearing a tie dirt, to try to make the diagnosis. In five minutes, most likely, do not cure. Take other car, and treatment of the got sick friend leave till the evening. Charge it to "doctors" with good reputation, especially if you not the expert better. Will be so cheaper. And if your friend is well familiar to you and you consider yourself the healer – well, try if not laziness to be soiled or there is no other way out.
It is necessary to start definition of the diagnosis quietly: study mentally symptoms. The first – whether "twists" a starter? If yes, that, how vigorously? You already know the answer – remember that occurred in the first attempts to start the car. If you do not remember, try once again.
If the starter does not twist at all and does not even click the traction relay at inclusion of ignition, then it or is faulty (it is possible to close a cowl and to follow the advice given above: "Take other car …"), or the electric power-supply circuit of a starter is faulty (the accumulator was switched-off or sat down). Only on rare models the power-supply circuit of a starter can be protected by a safety lock. It is simple to find it, especially if to foreknow where it is. If the accumulator is guilty, then except a starter also all electric equipment, as a rule, does not work. The elementary and most mild case – flew, one of plugs, but the accumulator as it should be became soiled or oxidized. Tighten fastenings of plugs on it and on a starter (if is). If it becomes clear that the battery completely sat down (forgot to switch off marker lights for the night), it is possible to leave nevertheless, but with assistance. Here, as they say, options are possible. It is possible to try to be got from a push, a hill or the tow. However be not under a delusion: the car with the automatic transmission or electronic injection of fuel (if there an electric gasoline pump) does not manage to be started these ways. It is necessary "to get a light" from the neighbor. However, at some cars it can lead to damages of "computer" – the central block of an electronic control system of the engine (read the instruction to the car). If the starter twists, but inertly (business happens in the summer, winter – a subject of a separate conversation), most likely, the rechargeable battery is almost absolutely discharged. It will be visible on weak light of headlights or work of a sound signal. In this case the above-stated options of assistance come into effect.
If the starter twists vigorously, and the engine does not react to attempts to bring him, safely exclude from further reflections everything connected with the accumulator. Check system of ignition or supply of fuel, you will not be mistaken. During the determining of the diagnosis and treatment of "disease" of each of systems system approach is necessary. It is the best of all to begin with ignition – in this system of a malfunction meet more often, especially during wet weather.
So, it is necessary "to look for a spark". Your car is equipped with electronic contactless system of ignition which can be integrated into an electronic control system of the engine. Anyway the system of ignition consists of three parts. Part one – low-voltage (the special sensor plus the box with an electronic stuffing forming a spark). Part second – the raising transformer called in the world by the ignition coil. Part third – high-voltage (the mechanical or electronic distributor of ignition and high-voltage wires of system of ignition on which the high-tension current is brought to candles). And, naturally, candles. An inspection of all this economy should be carried out step by step and better to begin "with the end".
Stage first. High-voltage part of system. Check whether there is a spark on the central wire is that which connects the ignition coil to the distributor. The tip of a wire needs to be taken out from a cover of the distributor and to bring closer to any detail having good contact with "mass" (body) of the car (it is painted or not, does not matter) and to fix so that between a tip and the chosen detail there was a gap of 5-7 mm. It is necessary to fix a wire especially reliably: if falls to "weight", electronics "will instantly die". For the same reason it is impossible "to strike" a wire on the case. To hold with a hand it too we do not advise, even not the, – will great strike with current.
Stage second. Turn the engine a starter. At the same time you watch what occurs on a wire tip. Two options are possible. More favorable – the spark is. Powerful, accompanied with loud click. It considerably narrows the field of further searches.
First of all it is necessary to uncover the distributor. Under it it can appear damp and dirty. On such "conductor" the spark willingly slips anywhere, only not there where it is necessary.
To wipe, clean and dry up. At the same time harmlessly to clean also contacts of the distributor, for example, a small skin. Examine so-called "runner". If on it or on a cover of the distributor you find a dark trace of electric breakdown, the detail should be changed. In the most biased way check the wires going from the distributor to candles. Wires and their tips have to be dry and pure. If with them, in your opinion, everything is all right, it is possible to put a cover into place, to restore connections and to try to start the engine. If malfunction was concealed under a cover, the engine will be started or at worst at least will begin to sneeze. A symptom too favorable – you on a right way. However, it is necessary to turn out, clean and dry candles: in attempts to start the engine you filled in them with gasoline. If the engine does not even sneeze, candles all the same should be turned out, cleaned and checked. It is simpler if there is a spare set.
If you already reached a stage of a reversing of candles, it is possible to check quite effectively (and it is effective) system of ignition in general. Having connected high-voltage wires of system of ignition to the turned-out candles, collect candles in a bunch as carrots, and wind it by a carving part of candles with the soft bared wire. Make sure that the wire contacts to each candle, but does not concern their central electrodes. Connect the free end of a wire to "weight". Having arranged a bunch of candles in the place, convenient for observation from salon, twist the engine a starter. Between electrodes of candles in turn (according to an operating procedure of cylinders) have to slip cheerful sparks. If this is so, then all system of ignition is serviceable. The engine sound at the same time will be very unusual, but be not frightened, it turns with the turned-out candles. Long you do not twist. It is worse if at the second stage of check other option takes place: there is no spark between the central wire and "weight". Means, it is not high-voltage chains. Further searches will be more difficult, estimate a stock of the time and desire. If that and another available, start the third stage.
Stage third. Check whether tension on the ignition coil moves. It is easy to make it a tester and if it is absent, it is possible to use a podkapotny lamp. However, couple of wires are required to connect it to the coil. It is necessary to connect a bulb between "weight" and an entrance of primary winding.
At the third stage, as usual, two options are also possible: tension on the coil either moves, or is not present. If moves, the coil – breakdown or short circuit is guilty that, however, happens extremely seldom. The coil should be changed. More often there is a bad contact in connection of wires with the coil. Or the same wet dirt on which the spark flows away it is unknown where. Sometimes the coil is polished to gloss, but under it invisible, very narrow strip of dirt – the quite good conductor remains.
If at the third stage you were convinced that tension on the coil does not move – electronics or contacts and unreliable connections is guilty of a low-voltage part of system of ignition. You will not cope with electronics (the switchboard and is more rare the sensor in the distributor case) – their diagnostics requires the special equipment. It is possible unless to pull the sensor socket on the distributor case – suddenly will help. Tension on contacts of the socket of only 12 V therefore it is possible to pull fearlessly. If tension appeared (when pulling contacts the bulb blinks), restore everything unscrewed and sorted, start the car and, maybe, still you will get on well at the affairs. If the engine is not started, but already at least sneezes – turn out candles and... (see выш).
It can turn out and so that all system of ignition was checked, it as it should be, and the engine though you burst, all the same is not started. Means, problems with other of the systems mentioned earlier – a power supply system, that is supply of fuel in the engine.
If you have a car with injection (an injector fuel supply system), do not touch it (to system). You can only come to conclusion that it is faulty: the spark is, fuel approaches – means, it, darling. Treatment only in a hospital. In house conditions and at handicraftsmen to repair it it is useless and it is even harmful.
We left the rare, but the most unpleasant diagnosis finally. If the starter works normally, and you already spent plenty of time and were convinced that ignition and food in a full order, but the car nevertheless is not started – it is worth examining a camshaft drive belt. However, solve: this inspection can be carried out and in the beginning, especially if the engine passed more than 60 thousand km. Complexity is in what should be removed or at least partially to unbend the top part of the plastic or metal casing closing a belt. Perhaps, at a belt teeths (at belts, as well as at people, teeth are lost from an old age) are cut off. In this case the camshaft does not rotate and the engine will not work. It is clear, that the toothless belt should be replaced. The procedure of replacement of a belt is simple, but is quite troublesome. It is carried out in a hospital. It is good if everything is limited to replacement of one belt, but not bent valves or all head of the block of cylinders – it happens too.

Power supply system contamination (about the reasons of "atherosclerosis")
Let's try to explain why the blood system of the car sometimes is surprised "atherosclerosis". Gasoline – car blood. And blood has to be pure and run on pure vessels. And ourselves are guilty that in vessels over an admissible measure "cholesterol", as a rule, collects. Whether often you use a canister for a gasoline dolivka in a tank? If yes, that chances to litter a fuel pipe and filters increase, especially if your funnel without network. In a canister the garbage, a rust, sand usually accumulates and if a canister inside colored, then and paint particles. It is clear, that the less intermediate container is used on the way of gasoline from a column to a tank, the better. As it is strange, even on the most mean gas station of dirt in tanks in the specific relation it is less, than in a "house" canister. Scourge of our gas stations not so much dirt, how many water. But here we are powerless. However with own hand not to add water to the domestic diluted gasoline, try to hold always a tank full. In an incomplete tank condensate, especially in off-season when there are sharp temperature drops accumulates.
It is necessary to tell a couple of words and about the accumulator. As on the majority of modern cars it unattended, is not present sense to provide here maintenance instructions. Let's give some additional advice how longer to keep the accumulator viable. Be not fond of a napichkivaniye of your car of additional consumers of energy. The fact that the certain stock allowing to be connected to two-three "parasites" is provided in power balance of the car, does not mean that it is possible to hang six horns and ten fog lights on the car – have sense of proportion. Besides, if you connect unforeseen consumers independently, the probability of damage of isolation is high. And in general, as practice shows, any, the intervention in a car electrical wiring which even is most qualified has an effect troubles sooner or later.
If your accumulator "is near death", try not to suppress the engine during uncountable stops in the city. Nothing so exhausts the battery as frequent use of a starter.
And, at last (it concerns not only the accumulator, but also all electric equipment of the car), remember: all plugs, contacts, tips of wires have to be dry and pure, well adjacent to "destinations". Dirty, greasy isolation makes the way sooner or later, and the podgoraniye and oxidation of any contact surface can serve only (and sufficient) as a cause of failure of system of ignition or the fire.
On it it is possible to stop. Meticulous motorists, undoubtedly, paid attention to some superficiality of our councils. We admit, we intentionally do not wish to go deep into a jungle not to provoke you to self-treatment – it does not result in good. The understanding of the nature of pains in the bottom of a stomach does not mean on the right that you have to delete at yourself an appendix. But you have to describe to the doctor appendicitis symptoms precisely. Very much helps treatment.

Visit  of service station (car service)
They say that abroad the breakdown vehicle is abandoned on the road, and received completely corrected at a threshold of own house. The insurance company potters with the car, it pays works, the owner often does not even know in what car service and who was engaged in its restoration.
Sometime so we will have also, but in most cases (especially if repair is trusted not the company station) our owner, addressing to auto repair shop, is forced to enter long and sometimes difficult relations with her masters and mechanics. In the relations on which as we know, quality of repair and its price often depends. It is no secret that the same master performs identical work with absolutely different quality. And business here not in evil will or mood of the performer, and that in our not comfortable conditions repair of cars turns into work more often creative which result, among other things, strongly depends on desire of the one who will execute it, and that impression which will be made on it by the customer. There is even an unspoken rule: what client – such is and work. And though the client is always right, his correctness exerts different impact on a result. What we are? And how it is correct to behave not to appear for nothing in every sense?
Look from car service.
Workers of workshops characterize the most typical clients and express to them the relation differently. Generally the picture looks so.
Client - "fop". Arrives by car covered by various "lotions" and "gadgets": additional headlights, stoplights, spoilers, active antennas, etc. An impression is made that the main knots of its car not the motor and the transmission, but the tape recorder with columns. Masters of such clients do not love. As a rule, they are not capable to estimate all work spent for repair of a subject of their desire, but are ready to carp at trifling scratch which allegedly was not earlier.
Complete antithesis of fops - "hard workers". These are people for whom the car not simply the vehicle, and a subsistence. These generally address services of service for performance of those works which cannot make due to the lack of the special tool or opportunities. They do not pay attention to minor defects, but are quite capable to make the real scandal if it becomes clear that, say, applied to sealing of a cover of a head of the block white sealant, but not red high-temperature.
"Rationalizers". Their cars are supplied with additional filters, electronic proofreaders, omagnichivatel of gasoline, electric systems of protection of a body against corrosion, "fancy" candles. Having addressed services of service with the begun to knock engine demanding capital repairs, such clients sincerely are surprised to what, appears, despite all the aspect modifiers which they regularly filled in in the motor, oil needed to be changed after all. Masters of such do not respect.
Repair of cars of the "equestrians" who got used to go only by them is very labor-consuming. Treating a visit to car service as to visit of the dentist (to go when absolutely presses), they start small diseases to such an extent that it is simpler to throw out the car, than all to treat him. By such cars and nuts it is easier not to turn off, and at once to cut off "Bulgarian". These with interest learn that the torn CV JOINT boot in a month leads to replacement of all knot. In the early spring in workshops careless "snowdrops", a kind of same "equestrians" appear. In their eyes a mute question: "Why even last fall the car quickly ran, and now creaks how the ungreased cart, speeds do not switch, and the engine is badly started?". They cannot understand that if not to carry out preservation of the car, then many details of its suspension bracket, the engine and a body from the long parking under snow spoil more, than from daily trips.
Special category – female drivers. By their cars all scheduled works, the engine pure, as a rule, are regularly performed, cars are well-groomed. It is difficult for women to estimate real danger of some scratch or knock, and they address in workshops at the slightest pretext. Sometimes on trifles like replacement of the burned-down safety lock. Their cars do not bring upon mechanics big trouble, but masters glance at them haughtily.
In general, as it is easy to guess, employees of car service treat practically all clients (in soul precisely!) haughtily and scornful indulgently. And not only at us. It is explained, probably, by perception psychology: "They ride, and we to them carry sanochka". There is even a saying: "The driver – only laying between a wheel and a seat which should be changed first of all". The rich and not really, "teapots" and "know-it-alls", quick-tempered, as gunpowder, and quiet, as tanks, – all of us outside love and deep respect of those who twist to us nuts. Then whom if do not love then respect the master to whom most qualitatively and diligently they carry out repair? Most successfully, judging by our observations, masters have relations with those who know specifics of car repairs and represent, at least in general as as it is necessary to do. At the same time such person is not obliged to be able "to twist nuts", but his knowledge and representations quite will be enough to understand why it was necessary to make that, but not another, than derogation from the rule and the accepted canon is caused, and, above all – it is difficult for it "to humbug". He can always forgive an oversight or a mistake, but is capable to claim strictly for hack-work. He always knows what he wants, and is able to achieve it.
And if there are no those skills how there is no desire (forces, time) to penetrate into specifics of repair, considering that the car was bought not for this purpose? Then it is necessary to choose such company car service where quality is guaranteed by its high reputation and rigid control from the management. But we have a conversation not about it now. How to behave? The advice given below will help to avoid the characteristic mistakes influencing workmanship of works and their price.
It is necessary to be prepared for visit of car service. Wash the car. Especially in places of the planned repair. Remove from it all superfluous. Switch-off the alarm system and turn off confidential nuts, having put them on a foreground. Cover seats with old covers, a pure rag or polyethylene. Some leave in a visible place a small bottle of mineral water. It you show respect for people who will be engaged in your car. Try to facilitate carrying out future works in every possible way. If in the car there is additional electric equipment (electrowindow regulators, additions to system of ignition, etc.), leave schemes or warn about their existence.
Be going to describe clear those damages which have to be eliminated, and ask to check at you work of those knots which are subject to repair. Do not make the diagnosis and the more so do not make categorical recommendations. If you, for example, tell "pull a chain", having heard that it rustles, to you it will be will pulled. And in several days the uspokoitel will collapse and all head of the block of cylinders will fail, for example. Ask the master most to listen to the engine (to look at a suspension bracket) and decide together what details need to be replaced surely and what to repair. Agree on the list of the replaced elements here and stipulate who gets them. If service assumes responsibility for quality (especially difficult) details, it is better to charge their purchases to it even if it is a little will increase repair cost. Buying details, choose the best of what is available. Do not save on trifles – nuts, percussion caps, covers, "elastic bands" and in general all disposable details. Their replacement not only increases quality of repair, but also considerably simplifies it, and at the same time and lightens the mood to those who directly repair. If you have no idea of how this or that malfunction is eliminated, be not too lazy to open the instruction or a grant for repair and at least in general to penetrate into the main point. It will add to you authority on the mechanic's eyes, will force to work it more carefully, and to you will allow to control work flow. If there are an opportunity and desire, be present at repair or at least regularly inquire about its course. In the course of work there are many small questions: to do to do, change to change. It is better if they are solved at once. Besides, defects which will be very difficult to be eliminated then are opened, and at present – it is possible. For example, when change a wing or the back panel, the unattractive picture of corrosion of the elements surrounding them opens (at the cars which are earlier subjected to body repair), it is easy to eliminate it on the course, but it is necessary to coordinate with the customer as it demands additional expenses from his party. Watch work unostentatiously, do not plague. Search and elimination of many "individual" malfunctions happens a trial and error method, and nobody wants that someone saw that he is mistaken. At the same time be ready to answer the arising questions or to explain something to the master. He knows the car in general, and you – behavior and background of this copy. Besides only you know what oil is filled in in the engine and what polish was used when processing a body.
Try to control quality of works step by step. It is much simpler to eliminate the minor body defect which is not stipulated in initial accounting to soil, than after painting.
Stipulate a warranty period, an order of presentation of claims at once. Especially many questions arise to quality of painting. For example, GOST allows light shagreen leather, existence of small dirtiness for this type of works, but does not allow paint potek. Our council – do not demand very smooth surface. It is easy to receive it, having put a thin paint coat. Besides in this case there will be no potek whereas the light shagreen leather testifying to a thick layer can be zapolirovat, and existence of a small potek even in the imperceptible place will allow to reduce working costs significantly.
Nothing happens eternal, but you, for certain, will arrange if, say, paint oblezt right after the expiration of the guarantee given you. It will be better if you buy (having consulted to those who will work with them) expendables and some specific means which can not be in a workshop of the average level. For example, if by your car sometime used silicone polish, get special means for its removal. Some polishes containing teflon are not removed nothing, and it is necessary to delete all paint with a special remover. Buy anticorrosive soil only the best quality, it is desirable two-component epoxy about which it is known that they well take a test of salt fog.
Having addressed in a workshop the first time, think that the visit here, for certain, will be not the last. Therefore take care of that the following repair delivered
mechanics have less than inconveniences: ask the master to process before final assembly threaded and other connections by silicone lubricant. It, as well as the universal getting liquid (WD-40 type), it is always better to have in a luggage carrier.
Do not bargain after to you called the final price, but before ask to make detailed accounting by separate types of works. Here it makes sense to discuss it in more detail to eliminate double payment of the same work. For example, if it is required to replace brake shoes and the brake cylinder, it is impossible to summarize automatically quotations for these works as for replacement of the cylinder it is already necessary to remove a wheel and, for example, the brake drum.
And the last. Do not try to put to the master in gratitude tip and furthermore a vodka bottle. It was so accepted when its salary made 5–6% of the fact that you paid to cash desk. Today its earnings together with awards and other payments appear more than a half of the sum paid by you. Find other opportunities to show it the respect and appreciation. For example, present some souvenir or something like that.