11.1. Wheels and tires

Moments of an inhaling, N · m

Forward suspension bracket
Nut of fastening of a nave..... 160–240
The top nuts of fastening are resistant..... 23–30
Nut of fastening of a rod of the shock-absorber of a rack..... 65–82
Lower nuts and bolts of fastening damping resistant..... 44–55
Bolt and nut of fastening of the spherical hinge to a suspension bracket..... 44–55
Lower coupling bolts and nuts of fastening of the lever of a suspension bracket..... 95–119
Bolts of fastening of brackets of the stabilizer of cross stability..... 44–55

Back suspension bracket
The top nuts of fastening are resistant..... 22–27
Nut of fastening of a rod of the shock-absorber of a rack..... 56–82
Lower nuts and bolts of fastening of a damping rack..... 95–119
Side bolt of fastening of draft..... 61–75
Fastening of side thirst for a cross-piece..... 95–119
Fastening of side thirst for a support of a back nave..... 95–119
Fastening of longitudinal thirst for a body..... 60–75
Fastening of longitudinal thirst for a support of a back nave..... 55–69
Fastening of longitudinal thirst for the stabilizer of cross stability..... 32–47

Steering
Nut of fastening of a tip of steering draft..... 30–45
Nut of fastening of an intermediate shaft..... 18–27
Fastening of the steering mechanism to a body..... 32–47
Nut of fastening of a steering wheel..... 40–50
Nuts/bolts of fastening of a bracket of a steering column..... 16–23
Nuts of fastening of a wheel..... 90–120

General information
Cars are equipped with radial tires. Do not install the tire of various type, for example radial and diagonal, on one car as it will negatively affect behavior of the car on the road.
It is recommended to make replacement of tires with couples on one axis. If only one tire is replaced, be convinced that the new tire had the same size, structure and the drawing of a protector.
As pressure in the tire exerts considerable impact on work and wear, check it on all tires at least once a month or before each long trip (tab. 11.1, 11.2). Check pressure and regulate on cold tires.

Table 11.1
Pressure in tires of cars with engines of 1,6 l

Table 11.2
Pressure in tires of cars with engines of 2,0 l


Fig. 11.1. Emergence on a protector of indicators of wear of the tire in the form of cross strips


Tires need to be replaced when depth of the drawing of a protector reached minimum admissible value of 1,6 mm. Tires contain wear indicators which are shown in the form of the strips located across a protector when wear of the tire exceeds maximum permissible (fig. 11.1). Pressure in tires and style of driving influence service life of tires. Passing of turns at great speed, excessively bystry acceleration or delay, sharp braking increase wear of tires. Strongly worn-out tires very easily are punctured and are especially dangerous during operation at damp weather.
On the nature of wear of a protector of the tire it is possible to designate problems in service or adjustment of elements of a suspension bracket and tires.
Disks of wheels need to be replaced if they are bent, rusted or were affected by corrosion, caved in, pass air, in cases of lengthening of an opening under a hairpin or if nuts of fastening of a wheel do not drag on rather reliably. Aluminum disks are especially subject to corrosion and are easily scratched. If on aluminum disks salty or alkaline water gets, it is necessary to wash away as soon as possible it as salt and alkali can damage disks.
Balancing of wheels is important from the point of view of the general operability and behavior of the car when braking. The debalanced wheels adversely influence behavior of the car on the road, reduce service life of tires. Every time at installation of the tire on a wheel it is necessary to carry out balancing in the auto repair shop having the necessary equipment.
Some models of cars are equipped with a compact spare wheel which reduces the place, necessary for storage, in a luggage carrier and which it is simpler to handle thanks to small weight. Check pressure in the tire of a spare wheel at least once a month. The compact tire is developed as temporary replacement for the damaged standard wheel. Constant use of the compact tire at a speed more than 80 km/h is not recommended. Besides, approximate service life of a protector of the compact spare tire makes 4800 km of a run of the car. The spare wheel is developed especially for your model of the car therefore it is impossible to use it on any other car. Diameter of "spare wheel" is less than diameter of standard wheel therefore the clearance of the car will decrease approximately by 25 mm.

Replacement of wheels
Install the car on a plain horizontal surface, tighten the parking brake and include transfer. On cars with the mechanical transmission turn on the reverse gear, on cars with the automatic transmission install the selector lever in situation "parking".
Take off a decorative cap of a wheel and weaken, but do not turn off a nut of fastening of a wheel. An antiretractable emphasis block the wheel located on diagonal to that which is required to be replaced.
Jack from a complete set of the car lift the car to a wheel separation from the earth.
Turn off nuts of fastening of a wheel.
Remove a wheel.
If the worn-out tire is replaced, provide a sufficient gap in relation to the earth for installation of the new tire, then establish a wheel on hairpins of fastening of a wheel.
Apply a little lubricant or diesel fuel on a carving of a hairpin of fastening of a wheel and screw nuts, at the same time the conical party of a nut has to be directed to a wheel.
Lower the car until the tire does not concern the earth, and hairpins of fastening of a wheel will not be established on the center in wheel openings.
Tighten nuts of fastening of a wheel evenly cross-wise.
Lower the car and remove a jack.
Establish a decorative cap of a wheel.
Angles of installation of wheels
The angles of installation of wheels – important parameter at operation of the car which considerably influences stability of the car, wear of tires and fuel consumption. Distinguish the following angles of installation of wheels.
The corner of disorder is a tilt angle of a wheel in relation to a paving in the vertical plane. It can be positive if wheels are inclined outside, or negative if wheels are inclined inside. The disorder corner generally influences cross forces.
The convergence of wheels - is defined as the difference of distances reduced twice between forward and back boards ободьев wheels. The positive convergence means that wheels are in front located more closely to each other, than behind, at measurement at height of an average point of a wheel. The negative convergence means that wheels in front are at bigger distance from each other, than behind. The convergence influences straightforwardness of the movement of the car and its controllability, compensates the resulting kinematic changes of geometry of a suspension bracket under the influence of draft force.
The shoulder of stabilization is a distance between a point of contact of a wheel and a point of intersection of an axis of turn of a wheel with the road at a side view. Determines the size of the stabilizing moment, influences course stability and forces in steering when passing turn.
The cross inclination of an axis of turn of a wheel is a corner between the axis of an inclination of a rotary fist and a vertical which is carried out through a point of fastening of a wheel if to look in the longitudinal direction of the car. Exerts impact on force of management (sensitivity of steering) along with other corners.
At the expense of corners of disorder and a cross inclination of an axis of turn of a point of a contact of wheels with the road are located closer to an axis of a rotary fist. Thus the so-called "shoulder of a running in" is supported. The "running in shoulder" is less, the it is easier to drive the car. Besides, blows from roughness of a covering are less transferred to steering.
Longitudinal inclination of an axis of turn of a wheel. The axis concerning which there is a turn of a wheel is placed in space so that its lower part is inclined forward. Such corner of a longitudinal inclination is called positive. At positive value of a corner spontaneous return of a wheel to average situation after turn improves.
Check and adjustment of angles of installation of wheels need to be carried out at car repair shop because of need of use of the difficult equipment.

Specifications