13.4. System of electrostart-up

General information
The system of electrostart-up includes the rechargeable battery, the starter engine, the traction relay, the ignition switch blocking the switch (only on cars with the automatic transmission), connecting wires and wires of the rechargeable battery.
At turn of a key in the ignition switch in situation "start-up" moves
tension to contact of the electromagnetic traction relay installed in the top part of a starter. The anchor of the traction relay is involved, via the lever of the drive moves a gear wheel with the coupling of a free wheeling and enters it into gearing with a gear wreath of a flywheel. After gearing of a gear wheel with a gear wreath of a flywheel the electric motor of a starter which turns a bent shaft of the engine turns on. After launch of the engine the frequency of rotation of a gear wheel exceeds the frequency of rotation of an anchor of a starter and the coupling of a free wheeling does not transfer torque from an engine flywheel to a starter anchor shaft.
It is inadmissible to carry out launch of the engine, including a starter for the period of more than 30 pages. Before repeated inclusion it is necessary to wait not less than 2 min. Excessively long inclusion of a starter leads to its overheat and serious breakages.

Starter

Specifications of a starter
Minimum admissible length of brushes, mm
11,5
Gap of a gear wheel, mm
0,5-2,0

Check of the electric motor of a starter without removal from the car
If the electric motor of a starter does not rotate at turn of a key in the ignition switch, on cars with the automatic transmission be convinced that the lever of the selector is in situation "parking" or "neutral".
Make sure that the rechargeable battery is charged, and check reliability of fastening of wires on plugs of the battery and the traction relay of a starter.
If at turn of a key in the ignition switch the electric motor of a starter does not rotate, but clicks of the traction relay at completely charged battery sound, so contacts the relay or the electric motor of a starter are faulty.
If at turn of a key in the ignition switch clicks of the traction relay are not listened, so the traction relay is faulty or there is a break in an electric chain of the relay.

Fig. 13.15. Use of a crossing point (1) for connection of plugs "B" and "M" of the traction relay for check of operability of the electric motor of a starter


For check of the electric motor connect a crossing point of the plug "B" and "M" on the traction relay (fig. 13.15). If the electric motor rotates, so it is serviceable, and malfunction should be looked for in the traction relay, the switch of ignition or wires. It should be noted that in this test the electric motor will not rotate a bent shaft as the traction relay which enters a starter gear wheel into gearing with a gear wreath of a flywheel is excluded from a power-supply circuit by a crossing point.
If the electric motor does not rotate, remove a starter assembled with the traction relay for dismantling, check, repair or replacement.
Removal and installation of a starter
Disconnect a wire from the negative plug of the rechargeable battery.
Remove the air filter.
Disconnect the contact socket from the traction relay and a wire from the starter engine plug.

Fig. 13.16. Elements of fastening of a starter


Turn out two bolts and remove the starter engine (fig. 13.16).
Installation is carried out to the sequences, the return to removal.
Traction relay of a starter
After removal of the electric motor of a starter disconnect the starter food tire.
Turn out two or three screws of fastening of the case of the traction relay to a cover of the leading gear wheel of a starter.
Turn the relay to bring out of gearing, and remove from the starter case, watching safety of adjusting laying.

Fig. 13.17. Arrangement of screws of fastening of the traction relay and adjusting laying (1)


Install the traction relay together with adjusting laying into place and turn so that it reached the correct position on a flange of a forward cover of a starter (fig. 13.17).
Wrap fastening screws.
If new details were established, the electric motor should be removed for check of a gap of the leading gear wheel.
Replacement of brushes of the electric motor of a starter
Turn out two coupling bolts and two short screws of fastening of a cover, then carefully uncover. Establish back on an anchor shaft adjusting washers.

PREVENTION
Replacement of brushes of the electric motor of a starter will require a powerful soldering iron, besides, certain skills of work are necessary.

Take brushes from brush holders. Take brushes on one for what lift a spring and get a brush. Consecutive extraction of brushes is necessary for preservation of a plate of fixing of brush holders. Measure length of brushes.
For replacement cut off conclusions from old brushes and solder conclusions of new brushes instead of old. After installation of new brushes be convinced that they are isolated from the case. Try to avoid hit of excessive solder at the soldering as flexibility of conclusions worsens.
Clear a collector the soft fabric moistened with solvent.
Assembly is carried out to the sequences, the return dismantling.

Repair of a starter with full dismantling

PREVENTIONS
If the starter developed the resource, it is more expedient to establish new, than to repair old.
Before performance of repair work check existence in sale of spare parts and learn their cost.

Dismantling
Remove a starter and clear it of dirt.
Turn off a nut of fastening of a wire of power supply of the electric motor of a starter to the traction relay and disconnect a wire.

Fig. 13.18. Basic elements of a starter: 1 – traction relay and adjusting laying; 2 – forward cover of a starter and plug of the bearing; 3 – the leading gear wheel assembled with the coupling of a free wheeling; 4 – gear wheel drive lever; 5 – anchor; 6 – case of a starter and winding of excitement; 7 – brush holder; 8 – cover and plug; 9 – coupling bolt


Turn out two or three screws of fastening of the traction relay to a cover of the leading gear wheel of a starter. Take out a yoke of the traction relay and establish into place adjusting laying, previously having marked their number and an arrangement (fig. 13.18). Establish into place a spring.
Unhook an anchor of the traction relay from the gear wheel drive lever.
Remove brushes of a collector and a plate of brush holders.
Carefully remove the starter case from an anchor. Hold an anchor – springs of the lever and a washer can drop out.
Remove the drive lever from the coupling of a free wheeling.
Get from a forward cover of a starter an anchor assembled with the coupling and a gear wheel.

Fig. 13.19. Removal of the leading gear wheel assembled with the coupling of a free wheeling


For removal of the leading gear wheel assembled with the coupling of a free wheeling from an anchor fix an anchor in a vice through two wooden whetstones. By means of the hammer and a piece of a pipe displace a persistent ring towards a gear wheel until access to a lock ring opens (fig. 13.19). Remove a lock ring, a persistent ring, a starter gear wheel with the coupling of a free wheeling.
Check

Fig. 13.20. Use of an ohmmeter for check of conductivity between lamels of a collector and the core of a winding of a rotor


Connect an ohmmeter to lamels of a collector and the core of a winding of a rotor and be convinced that between them there is no conductivity (fig. 13.20). With conductivity replace a rotor.
Check a rotor winding by means of the special device. In the presence of short circuit in a winding of a rotor replace a rotor. If the steel plate brought to the winding core vibrates at turn of the core, so in a winding short circuit.

Fig. 13.21. Cleaning of grooves of a collector: And =0,5–0,8 mm


Check a collector for existence of traces of burning out and other defects. Sometimes the collector is possible to repair by his pro-point, however the skilled master has to perform this work. Remove with the ground hacksaw cloth or other suitable tool coal deposits and other pollution from grooves between collector lamels. Depth of cutting of grooves of a collector should not exceed specified fig. 13.21.
Connect an ohmmeter between lamels of a collector of a rotor and check conductivity in a rotor winding. If conductivity is absent, so there is a break. Replace a rotor.
In need of the plug of bearings of an anchor it is possible to take from covers and to replace new. Before installation of plugs it is recommended to keep them in engine oil.
Check existence of visible damages on details of the traction relay and clear a rust from a relay anchor.
Check a gear wheel and teeths of the coupling of a free wheeling for existence of wear and damages, if necessary replace the coupling of a free wheeling. Check a gear wreath of a flywheel for existence of damages.
Holding not movably a starter shaft, rotate a gear wheel of the coupling of a free wheeling. It has to rotate freely clockwise and be blocked at turn counterclockwise.
Assembly
Establish a gear wheel assembled with the coupling of a free wheeling on an anchor shaft. At first put on a gear wheel and the coupling, then a persistent ring a shaft. In a flute of a shaft establish a new lock ring, fix it, with a force having put on the coupling over a ring by means of Rozhkov' couple of wrenches, working with them as levers.
Establish an anchor in a forward cover and hook on the drive lever for the coupling of a free wheeling. Put on a washer and a spring an axis of the lever and carefully put on the starter case with windings.
Install the brush holder, adjusting washers, a cover of a collector and screw coupling bolts.
Hook on a plunger and a yoke of the traction relay for the drive lever, establish adjusting laying. Turn and tighten screws of fastening of the traction relay, do not connect a wire of power supply of the engine of a starter yet.
Bench tests

Fig. 13.22. Check of the involving winding of the traction relay of a starter


Additional wires connect the rechargeable battery to the S and M plugs and the case of the traction relay of a starter – the gear wheel of a starter will be pushed forward (fig. 13.22). This inspection needs to be carried out as soon as possible (less than for 10 c) for an exception of burn-out of the coil of the solenoid of the traction relay.

Fig. 13.23. Check of the holding winding of the traction relay of a starter


Check work of the holding winding of the traction relay as follows. Additional wires connect the rechargeable battery to the S and M plugs and the case of the traction relay of a starter – the gear wheel of a starter will be pushed forward. Then disconnect a wire from the plug "M" (fig. 13.23). If the gear wheel remains put forward, so everything serviceable. If the gear wheel to move back, so the deduction chain is opened. Replace the magnetic switch.

Fig. 13.24. Check of return of the solenoid of the traction relay


Check return of the solenoid of the traction relay for what connect the positive plug of the rechargeable battery to the plug "M", and negative – with the case of the traction relay (fig. 13.24). Extend a gear wheel, and then release it. If the gear wheel quickly returns to initial situation, so everything is all right. Otherwise replace the solenoid of the traction relay.
If result of any of these tests unsatisfactory, replace the traction relay. If result of all tests positive, measure a starter gear wheel gap as follows.
Connect the negative plug of the rechargeable battery to the case of the traction relay, and positive – to the S plug.

Fig. 13.25. The place of measurement of a gap between a gear wheel and a stopper


The flat probe check a gap between a gear wheel and a stopper (a gear wheel gap) (fig. 13.25). If the gap of a gear wheel does not correspond to demanded, adjust it, having added or having removed adjusting laying between the traction relay and a forward cover.
If the traction relay is serviceable, and the gap of a gear wheel corresponds to demanded, connect a wire of power supply of the electric motor of a starter to the plug "M" of the traction relay and fix it by a nut.

Fig. 13.26. The scheme of connections for measurement of the current consumed by a starter in an operating mode without loading


Measure current of idling of the electric motor for what collect the scheme, as shown in fig. 13.26, and fix the electric motor in a vice.
At a voltage of 11,5 V the consumed current should not exceed 60 A, and the frequency of rotation of an anchor has to be not less than 6500 min.-1. Do not leave the electric motor included for a long time with such frequency of rotation.