2.5. Check of levels of operational liquids

PREVENTION
It is necessary to check the level of operational liquid on the car which is on a plain horizontal surface.

Engine oil
Engine oil is of great importance for normal and durable operation of the engine. It has to keep the properties even under extreme conditions and as it is possible to grow old more slowly. Engine oil reduces friction between the surfaces of sliding that reduces wear of pistons with piston rings, cylinders, bearings and details of the valvate mechanism.
Engine oil is also used for microsealing between pistons, piston rings and walls of cylinders as between these details there is always a gap in several micron. Thanks to the additional condensing oil influence the high pressure of gases resulting from combustion is transferred without loss to the bottom of the piston and turns into kinetic energy. Thus optimum engine capacity is reached.
Level of engine oil in the engine is checked by the index (probe) of level of engine oil located from the forward party of the engine about a radiator. The index (probe) for measurement of level of oil is inserted through the directing pipe into the oil pallet located in the lower part of the engine.
An inspection of level of oil is recommended to be carried out before departure on the car or in 15 min. after launch of the engine. If to check oil level right after a car start of motion, some volume of oil will remain in the top part of the engine, incorrect readings will be as a result taken.

Fig. 2.1. An arrangement of tags of "L" and "F" on the index of level of oil


Get the probe from a pipe and wipe with pure rags or a paper towel it. Insert against the stop the blank index through the directing pipe into the oil pallet, wait a little and take it repeatedly. Level of oil has to be between tags of "L" and "F" on the index (fig. 2.1).
The volume of engine oil between tags of "L" and "F" of the index makes 1 l. Level of oil should not fall below the lower tag. Reduction of level more than on 0,25 l does not constitute danger to the engine. If there is not enough bigger amount of oil and the car moves with high frequency rotations of a bent shaft of the engine, pressure of oil can decrease to a dangerous limit what the driver will be informed by the control lamp of pressure of oil located in a combination of devices on.
It is not recommended to fill in oil above a tag of "F" on the index as it in a large number gets to the combustion chamber through system of ventilation of a case and burns down in it.
Oil is added to the engine after removal of a cover from an oil-filling mouth. For reduction of amount of the spilled oil it is necessary to use a funnel.
Check of level of oil is an important element of preventive maintenance of the car. If you find considerable reduction of level of oil during rather small period, it indicates existence of leak of oil or wear of details of the engine that needs to be eliminated immediately. If drops of water got to oil or it has a pale dairy shade, so cooling liquid got to the lubrication system. In this case it is necessary to check and repair the engine immediately. Along with check of level of oil it is necessary to check a condition of cooling liquid in a broad tank. After extraction of the index of level of oil from the engine erase oil from the index big and index fingers for definition of existence of parts of dirt or metal which can stick to it at measurement of level. Pollution and particles of metal in engine oil indicate its replacements the need.

Cooling liquid
All cars are equipped with the cooling system with compulsory circulation of liquid under pressure. The hose from a broad tank fixed on the internal panel of a wing is connected to a radiator cover. When the engine during the work heats up, cooling liquid from a radiator through a connecting hose gets to a broad tank. When the engine cools down, cooling liquid automatically comes back to a radiator, at the same time liquid level is supported.
Level of cooling liquid needs to be checked on the hot engine: it has to be in a broad tank about a tag "full" on lateral face of a tank. If the engine cold, turn off a cover and check the level of cooling liquid in a radiator.

PREVENTION
It is necessary to be careful when opening a cover of a broad tank on the hot engine as the coming-out vapors can lead to severe burns. For this purpose close a cover of a broad tank a thick layer of fabric and slowly unscrew a cover before emergence of hissing. After the hissing termination slowly turn off and uncover a broad tank.

If it is required to add only a small amount of cooling liquid, it is possible to use usual water. At a dolivka of a large amount of liquid it is necessary to maintain the recommended concentration of ethylene glycol in water. Do not allow hit of cooling liquid on clothes and a paint and varnish covering of a body. Otherwise wash out a surface a large amount of water.
The broad tank should be filled with cooling liquid to a tag "full". If the radiator is uncovered, pour cooling liquid until the radiator is filled, then establish a cover.
When checking level of cooling liquid pay attention to its state. Liquid has to be rather transparent. If it brown color or color of a rust, merge it, wash out system and fill with fresh cooling liquid.
If it is required to fill up periodically the cooling system for maintenance of the required level, check consolidation of a cover of a radiator. Check lack of the leaks in system caused by damages of hoses and laying, weakening of connections of hoses, etc.

Liquid for washers of glasses and headlights
Liquid for a windshield washer.

Fig. 2.2. Arrangement of a washer reservoir (b)) of glasses


Liquid is in the plastic tank close to a broad tank (fig. 2.2). The tank has to be filled no more than on 2/3 volumes, considering possible expansion of liquid when freezing. In cold weather use special nonfreezing liquids which can be bought in shop. It is strictly forbidden to use antifreeze as additive as it will lead to damage of a paint and varnish covering of the car.
Before application of a washer for prevention of frosting at cold weather heat a windshield a heater.
Liquid for a washer of back glass.
On the models equipped with windscreen washer of back glass, the tank is located behind the panel in the luggage compartment, and it also should be filled to 2/3 volumes, using the same liquid, as in a windshield washer.
Liquid for a washer of headlights.
Some models are equipped with a washer of headlights which tank is located in a motor compartment. Because of variety of the used tank configurations for definition of its arrangement track laying of tubes from a washer to a tank. The tank also should be filled to 2/3 volumes, using the same liquid, as in a windshield washer.

Electrolyte in the rechargeable battery
The rechargeable battery under normal conditions of operation of the car practically does not demand service. At high temperature of air it is recommended to check electrolyte level in the battery from time to time. It is necessary to check also electrolyte level when charging battery. It always has to be between the tags "MIN" and "MOVE" put on the longitudinal parties of the battery.

PREVENTIONS
Electrolyte is very aggressive. It is necessary to work with the rechargeable battery in gloves and goggles. It is impossible to allow hits of drops of acid and the particles containing compounds of lead in eyes, on skin or clothes.
Do not incline the battery – from air vents electrolyte can pour out. At hit of electrolyte in eyes immediately wash out them clear water within several minutes. After that see a doctor. At hit of electrolyte on skin or clothes immediately neutralize acid alkaline soap and wash out the appropriate place a large amount of clear water.

At decrease in level of electrolyte it is necessary to add in the relevant banks the distilled water to a tag "MOVE". It should be made before the level of electrolyte falls below a tag of "MIN".
Do not pour electrolyte above the necessary level as it will follow through air vents that can lead to damage of a paint and varnish covering and corrosion of a body.
After a dolivka of electrolyte it is necessary to close densely the relevant accumulator banks traffic jams.

Brake fluid

Fig. 2.3. A tank arrangement with brake fluid on the main brake cylinder


The main brake cylinder is installed in a motor compartment. Level of brake fluid has to be supported about a tag of "MAX" of a tank (fig. 2.3).
If the level of brake fluid low, before removal of a cover for prevention of pollution of the brake system wipe the top part of a tank and a cover with pure rags.
At addition of brake fluid it is necessary to be careful accurately to fill a tank and not to spill brake fluid on the surrounding painted surfaces. Make sure that the recommended liquid as mixing of various types of brake fluid can lead to damage of the brake system is used.
The manufacturer recommends to make replacement of brake fluid by means of pumping of a hydraulic actuator of brakes. Brake fluid needs to be replaced if in it particles of dirt or a drop of water are found.
After filling of a tank to appropriate level it is necessary to be convinced of correctness of installation of the cover excluding leak of brake fluid and/or reduction of pressure in system.
Level of brake fluid in the main brake cylinder will a little fall at wear of brake shoes or disks in the course of normal operation. If it is required to add constantly liquid for maintenance of its necessary level, so in the brake system there are leaks which need to be eliminated immediately.
If when checking level of brake fluid you find out that one or both sections of a tank almost empty, after a dolivka of brake fluid it is necessary to pump over the brake system.

Gearbox oil of the mechanical transmission
For determination of level of oil application of the index of level is not provided in mechanical transmissions. Level of liquid is checked by removal of a gear wheel of the drive of a speedometer.

Fig. 2.4. An arrangement of tags of "F" and "L" on a speedometer drive gear wheel for check of level of oil in the mechanical transmission


Turn off a bolt, take a speedometer drive gear wheel, wipe, clear and repeatedly establish it into place. Again take a gear wheel and check the oil level which has to be between tags of "F" and "L", as shown in fig. 2.4.
Oils you lead Dolivka by the syringe through an opening for a speedometer drive gear wheel to the mechanical transmission. Establish a gear wheel of the drive of a speedometer and fix it by a bolt. After a short trip on the car check lack of leak of oil from the transmission.

Working liquid of the automatic transmission
The automatic transmission is filled with working liquid which serves for lubricant and adjustment of hydraulic pressure in the transmission.
Level of working liquid in the automatic transmission needs to be supported in strictly certain limits. Low level of liquid leads to pro-slipping of couplings or reduction of traction effort while excess of level promotes foaming and violation of work of hydraulic system of the transmission. At the low level of liquid it is not necessary to fill in liquid at once, previously check the transmission for tightness. Works on sealing of a box should be performed at service station.
Tighten parking a brake, launch the engine, move the selector lever serially to all provisions and leave it in situation "parking". Level of liquid needs to be checked on the lifted car, with the engine working in the idling mode.

Fig. 2.5. An arrangement of the index of level of transmission liquid in the automatic transmission


At a normal working temperature for measurement of level of working liquid of the transmission take the index from a tube of the bulk mouth located in a back part of a case of the transmission (fig. 2.5).

PREVENTION
Level of working liquid in the automatic transmission will be determined incorrectly right after a long trip of the car at a high speed, with the trailer, in warm weather and at the movement in the city. In these cases it is necessary to wait when working liquid is cooled within 30 min.

Wipe the index of level with pure rags and insert it back into a tube of a bulk mouth before dense landing of a cover.
Take the index and determine the level of working liquid which has to be between tags of "L" and "F" (see fig. 2.5).
Add working liquid of the recommended type for filling of the transmission to the required level.
The volume of working liquid between tags of "L" and "F" of the index on the hot transmission makes 1 l therefore it is necessary to add liquid gradually, constantly checking level. Work very carefully that pollution or foreign objects did not get to the transmission.
Along with determination of level of liquid check its state. If liquid on the index of level of dark red-brown color or has a burned smell, then such liquid should be replaced. If you have doubts concerning a condition of liquid, buy new liquid for a sample and compare both liquids for the color and a smell.

Liquid of system of the hydraulic booster of steering
As a power source for operation of the amplifier of steering the pump which under pressure gives liquid to the corresponding cavity of steering transfer is used, considerably reducing the efforts used to a steering wheel for turn of forward wheels of the car.

Fig. 2.6. A tank arrangement with liquid for the hydraulic booster of steering


The tank with liquid of the power steering is located behind a radiator in a forward part of the car (fig. 2.6).
When checking level of liquid forward wheels have to be established for the movement directly, the engine is stopped.
Wipe with pure rags a cover of a tank and area around it. It will exclude hit of any objects in a tank when checking level of liquid.
Let and warm up the engine up to the normal working temperature.
Take the index of level and wipe it with pure rags. Repeatedly insert the index into a tank, then take out and determine the liquid level which has to be between tags of "L" and "F".
If it is required to add liquid, add the required amount of the recommended liquid through a funnel directly in a tank.
The index of level has to be repeatedly established so that the arrow on a cover was directed to a radiator forward.
If the frequent dolivka of liquid is required, check tightness of all hoses of steering with the power steering, connections of hoses, the pump of the power steering and a gear wheel.