3.5. Capital repairs of the engine

Repair work, possible without removal of the engine from the car
Without removal of the engine from the car it is possible to execute the majority of the main operations on repair.
Before any works it is recommended to wash out a motor compartment and the engine a water stream. It is easier to work with the pure engine as it is possible to prevent pollution of internal elements of the engine. To expand working space and not to damage a paint and varnish covering, remove a cowl and mudguards. If the traces of leaks of oil or cooling liquid indicating replacements of laying the need are observed, then all works are, as a rule, carried out without removal of the engine. Without removal it is possible to replace laying of the oil pallet, a head of the block of cylinders, laying of inlet and final collectors, forward and back covers and an epiploon of a bent shaft.
Without removal of the engine it is possible to remove the water pump, a starter, the generator, the ignition distributor, inlet and final collectors, the fuel pump and the carburetor.
As the head of the block of cylinders can be removed without removal of the engine too, it is possible to repair also the valvate mechanism. Without removal it is possible to perform also such works as replacement or check of a condition of a gear belt, pulleys of a gear belt of the drive of the gas-distributing mechanism, oil pump and consolidation of a forward cover.
In extreme cases when there is no necessary equipment, without removal of the engine it is possible to replace piston rings, pistons, rods and connecting rods, to otkhoningovat cylinders. However it is not recommended to perform these works without removal of the engine as it is necessary to clear the accompanying details and to execute preparatory activities.

General recommendations about capital repairs of the engine
It is not always easy to come to a conclusion about expediency of capital repairs of the engine as it is based on a number of indicators. The big run is not always an indicator of need of carrying out capital repairs, and the small run does not exclude capital repairs. The most important indicator, most likely, is timeliness of carrying out the current maintenance of the engine. When replacing oil and the air filter, performance of all other necessary works on service at the scheduled time the engine reliably serves throughout many thousands of kilometers of a run. Insufficient service can be the reason of sharp reduction of a resource. The raised consumption of oil indicates wear of piston rings or the directing plugs of valves. It is necessary to be convinced that leaks not the reason of the raised oil consumption, and only after that to draw a conclusion about unfitness of piston rings and guides of plugs. To determine the volume of the forthcoming works, measure a compression in cylinders or check tightness of the combustion chamber for what it is recommended to address the expert.
If during the operation of the engine the increased noise or knocks are listened, then wear of inserts of conrod or radical bearings can be their probable cause. Turn out the sensor of pressure and measure by the manometer oil pressure, compare the received value with specified in specifications. If pressure low, then can be the cause wear of basic bearings or the oil pump. Loss of power, failures in operation of the engine, the increased noise from the gas-distributing mechanism, the increased fuel consumption indicate the need carrying out capital repairs, especially if all these signs of malfunction appear at the same time. If performance of all adjustments does not lead to improvement, then repair is most expedient.
Capital repairs consist in restoration of details of the engine to the state specified in specifications for the new engine. When carrying out capital repairs piston rings are replaced, and walls of cylinders are chiseled (or honingutsya) to the repair size. After repair of cylinders installation of new pistons will be required. Connecting and radical rods are also subject to replacement, if necessary it is necessary to proshlifovat a bent shaft before restoration of gaps with connecting and radical rods. As a rule, the valvate mechanism is not replaced as its state at the time of repair, as a rule, satisfactory. During capital repairs of the engine repair of the carburetor, distributor of ignition, starter and generator is also carried out. As a result the engine has to have qualities of almost new unit and to serve smoothly long time. Before capital repairs of the engine study the description of repair work to determine the volume of the forthcoming works. Capital repairs are simple, but demand big expenses of time. Approximately not less than two weeks, especially are required if for repair and restoration of details (grinding, boring) it is necessary to address in a specialized workshop. Check existence of spare parts and in advance think of acquisition of necessary special tools and the equipment.
Almost all works can be performed by means of standard tool kit though precision measuring instruments will be necessary for check and definition of suitability of these or those details. Often check of a condition of details is carried out in specialized workshops in which receive recommendations about replacement or restoration of details.
As the condition of the block of cylinders is the defining factor, it is necessary to make the decision on its further repair or on purchase of the new repair block of cylinders only after careful check of its technical condition. Make it a rule that the true price of repair is time, then it is not necessary to pay for installation of the worn-out or repaired details.
In conclusion we will note that assembly of any units should be carried out very carefully, in the pure room to avoid further failures of the repaired engine.

PREVENTION
It is necessary to address in workshops of car service only after full dismantling of the engine and check of all details, especially the block of cylinders to decide what operations on service and repair will be carried out in workshops.

Alternatives of capital repairs of the engine
At independent performance of capital repairs various options are possible. The decision on replacement of the block of cylinders, conrod and piston group and a bent shaft depends on a number of factors from which the most important is the condition of the block of cylinders. Other criteria of need of carrying out overhaul are the repair cost, a possibility of access to the equipment of workshops of car service, existence of spare parts, time planned for work, and also personal experience.
Here some of options of performance of capital repairs.
Acquisition of separate spare parts.
If inspection shows that the block of cylinders and the majority of details in satisfactory condition and can be used further, then purchase of separate spare parts is most expedient from the economic point of view. The block of cylinders, conrod and piston group and a bent shaft should be surveyed carefully. Even if insignificant wear of the block of cylinders is found, cylinders are subject to an obligatory honingovaniye.
Bent shaft of a full complete set.
This repair kit includes a repolished bent shaft and a set of the pistons and rods adjusted by the size. Pistons are already installed on rods. A set of piston rings, radical and connecting rods is also included in the package. These sets usually contain pistons both standard, and all repair sizes.
Block of cylinders of an incomplete complete set.
Contains the block of cylinders with the installed krivoshipno-conrod mechanism and piston group. New inserts of radical and conrod bearings are included in the package, all gaps meet standards. On a set install the available camshaft, the valvate mechanism, a head of the block of cylinders and hinged units. Costs of machining are minimum or are not required absolutely.
Block of cylinders of a full complete set.
The block of cylinders of a full complete set contains all set of the block of cylinders of an incomplete complete set, and also the oil pump, the oil pallet, a head of the block of cylinders, a cover of the case of bearings of the camshaft, the camshaft, the valvate mechanism, a pulley of a gear belt of the drive of the camshaft, a gear belt and casings of a belt. All details are established with new bearings, consolidations and laying. On a set establish only inlet and final collectors and hinged units. Carefully think over what of alternatives best of all suits you; before purchase of details consult in car service, with suppliers and sellers of spare parts.

Security measures at removal of the engine 
If the decision on removal of the engine for carrying out capital repairs or repair of the main knots is made, it is necessary to hold preparatory activities. It is extremely important to plan the place where works will be carried out. Undoubtedly, the best place is the workshop. If there is neither workshop, nor a garage, the flat smooth concrete or asphalted platform will be required. Sink of a motor compartment and the engine before removal will allow to keep the tool clean and to support him in good repair.
Will be necessary the elevator or a telfer. Make sure that these devices are capable to lift the engine with all units. Observance of safety rules plays a paramount role as extraction of the engine from the car – dangerous operation.
If works on removal of the engine are carried out by the inexperienced person, the assistant is necessary. Ask to help skilled mechanics. There are many types of works on extraction of the engine from a motor compartment which should be carried out with the assistant.
In advance plan the actions. Agree or buy all necessary tools and the equipment before beginning works. To some devices ensuring safety at removal and installation of the engine and also decrease in labor costs, strong supports, a full set of keys and mandrels, a wooden antiretractable emphasis, rags and solvent for removal of inevitable pools from the spilled liquids belong (besides the elevator). If the elevator is hired, agree in advance and perform all works in which this mechanism is not necessary. It will allow to save money and time. Keep in mind that long enough you will not be able to use the car. For performance of certain works which require the special equipment it is necessary to address to the service center. Before removal of the engine precisely estimate expenses of time for repair and restoration of details.
Be very attentive at removal of the engine. Rash actions can become the reason of serious injuries. In advance consider the actions. Do not feel sorry on it for time, the main thing – work without injuries.

The sequence of dismantling at capital repairs of the engine
The easiest to disassemble the engine and to carry out all types of works at the figurative stand. Before installation of the engine it is necessary to shoot a flywheel with the coupling mechanism with the stand.
If there is no stand, it is possible to disassemble the engine, having strengthened it on a strong workbench or a floor. When dismantling without stand be very careful during transactions of the engine.
If the engine is supposed to be taken to repare, then at first it is necessary to remove all units subsequently to install them in the same order, as well as at independent capital repairs. The following belongs to such units:
– generator and arms;
– systems of decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases;
– distributor of ignition, candle and high-voltage wires;
– the thermostat with the case;
– water pump;
– carburetor;
– inlet and final collectors;
– oil filter;
– fuel pump;
– engine mount details;
– a flywheel with the coupling mechanism.

PREVENTION
At removal from the engine of hinged units with special attention treat those details which can be necessary at installation of the engine or for auxiliary installation. Apply tags on laying, epiploons, pro-rates, shaft, washers, nuts to establish them in former situation.

If the block of cylinders of an incomplete complete set, i.e. the block of cylinders with installed by the krivoshipno-conrod mechanism and piston group is installed, then it is also necessary to remove a head of the block of cylinders, the oil pallet and the oil pump. The list of the details which are subject to removal is defined by the accepted repair option.
If it is planned to make complete capital repairs, then the engine it is necessary to sort and remove completely engine details in the following order:
– casings of a gear belt of the drive of the gas-distributing mechanism;
– gear belt;
– cover of a head of the block of cylinders;
– forward and back covers;
– head of the block of cylinders and camshaft;
– oil pallet;
– oil pump;
– conrod and piston group;
– bent shaft.
Before dismantling and performing procedures of capital repairs the following tools and the equipment will be necessary:
– standard tool kit;
– small boxes or plastic bags for storage of details;
– the pallet for removal of the remains of laying;
– development for a razzenkovka of openings;
– shock stripper;
– micrometers;
– the arrow indicator with assembly system;
– device for compression of springs;
– device for a honingovaniye of cylinders;
– the tool for cleaning of flutes of piston rings;
– electric drill;
– set of taps and dies;
– wire brushes;
– solvent.

PREVENTION
On sale there are new and repair heads of the block of cylinders. As specialized tools will be necessary for dismantling and check, and sometimes it is hard to find spare parts, it is the best of all to get a new head of the block of cylinders, than to sort it, to check and repair separate details.

Dismantling of a head of the block of cylinders
For dismantling of a head of the block of cylinders it is necessary to remove inlet and final collectors and the accompanying details. Remove from a head the camshaft and yokes assembled with shaft if these details are not removed yet. Mark details or put them separately that subsequently it was possible to establish on the former place.
Before removal of valves mark them or prepare the place to lay together all details of the valve and then to install in the former directing plug.
Special adaptation squeeze springs of the first valve and remove crackers. Carefully release valve springs, remove a plate, springs, a maslootrazhatelny cap and a lock ring, take out the valve from a head of the block of cylinders. If extraction of the valve from a guide is complicated (badly forces the way), push it back in the directing plug and slightly process a file or whetstone the site of a core about a pro-point for crackers.
Repeat the same actions for other valves. Remember that it is necessary to lay together all details of the valve subsequently to establish them on the former place.
After removal of valves and their sorting clear a head of the block of cylinders and check its state. If complete capital repairs of the engine are made, then before beginning cleaning and check of a head of the block of cylinders, finish all operations on dismantling.

Cleaning and check of a head of the block of cylinders
Careful cleaning of a head of the block of cylinders and details of the valvate mechanism with the subsequent check will allow to estimate the volume of service works at capital repairs of the engine.
Cleaning
Being careful, remove all remains of material of laying and sealant from privalochny surfaces of a head of the block of cylinders, the block of cylinders, inlet and final collectors not to damage a surface from fragile aluminum alloy. Use for this purpose the special means which are available on sale dissolving material of consolidations and facilitating work.
From channels of the cooling system remove a scum.
Remove with a rigid wire brush all deposits from oil channels.
Tap clean a carving in each carving opening to remove traces of corrosion and sealant. If there is an opportunity, blow compressed air all channels and openings to remove the cleanings of a particle which remained later.
Dies clean carvings of hairpins of fastening of inlet and final collectors.
Wash out a head of the block of cylinders solvent and carefully dry. Use of compressed air will accelerate drying and will allow to clear all channels and the hidden cavities.

PREVENTION
When cleaning a head of the block of cylinders and details of the valvate mechanism very good results are yielded by use of solvents of a deposit. These are very caustic liquids therefore it is necessary to use them, observing precautionary measures. Study the instruction for application given on packing.

Carefully clear yokes and shaft. Use of compressed air will accelerate drying and will allow to clear oil channels.
Wash out solvent of a spring of valves, crackers and lock rings, carefully dry. Wash out details only of one valve not to mix them.
Wash away all deposits from valves. Then a wire brush remove a deposit from heads and cores of valves. Do not mix a detail.
Check
Attentively examine a head of the block of cylinders, check existence of cracks, damages, traces of penetration of cooling liquid. At detection of cracks replace a head.

Fig. 3.28. Use of calibration whetstone and the probe for check of planeness of a privalochny surface of a head of the block of cylinders and the direction in which it is necessary to take measurements


The probe and calibration whetstone or metal ruler check a deviation of a privalochny surface of a head of the block of cylinders from planeness (fig. 3.28). If the curvature exceeds 0,15 mm on head length, then the head should be proshlifovat in a workshop of car service.
Check a condition of saddles of valves in each combustion chamber. In the presence of sinks, cracks and traces of a burn-out repair of a head in a workshop of car service as in house conditions repair is impossible will be required.

Fig. 3.29. Measurement of a gap between the valve and the directing plug by means of the arrow indicator


Check a gap between cores of valves and the directing plugs. Measure by means of the arrow indicator a side side play of a core of the valve inserted into the directing plug so that the valve acted from a saddle approximately on 1,5 mm (fig. 3.29). If after this measurement there is a suspicion on the increased wear of the directing plug, and the result will seem doubtful, then address to the service center where for a moderate payment will take more exact measurement.
Yokes
Examine surfaces of yokes in places of contact with cams of the camshaft and cores of valves, check existence on them of wear tracks, dredging and deep development. Examine also working surfaces of shaft of yokes.
Examine internal surfaces of openings under shaft in yokes, check existence on them of zadir and development. Check a gap between shaft and a yoke, having measured respectively external and internal diameters, compare a gap with specified in specifications.
Replace strongly worn-out details or details with damages.
Valves
Attentively examine valves, check existence on them of cracks, development and traces of a burn-out. Check existence of cracks on necks and cores. Check a deflection of cores and wear of end faces of cores of valves. Existence of any defect indicates the need of repair of valves for auto repair shop.
Measure distance of a corbel of each valve from edge of a head of the valve and compare to the value given in specifications. If this distance is less set, then the valve (both inlet, and final) is subject to replacement.

Fig. 3.30. Measurement of length of a spring of the valve in a free state


Fig. 3.31. Measurement of a deviation of a spring from the vertical plane


Check existence of wear tracks on each spring of the valve (at end faces). Measure spring length in a free state (fig. 3.30) and compare it to the value given in specifications. Springs with shrinkage which length in a free state is less than set are subject to replacement (for any valve). Establish a spring on a flat plain surface and check its deviation from the vertical plane (fig. 3.31).
Check existence of visible wear tracks and cracks on lock rings and crackers. The details raising doubts should be replaced as their breakage in operating time of the engine will lead to serious destructions.
If when checking it becomes clear that valve details in an unsatisfactory state and are excessively worn-out that, as a rule, and is observed in the engines subjected to capital repairs, replace them.
If when checking it becomes clear that wear of details does not exceed admissible, and a condition of facets of valves and saddles satisfactory, then all details of the valve can be established repeatedly on a head of the block of cylinders without carrying out additional repair work.

Repair of valves
Because of complexity of works and need of use of special tools and the equipment it is the best of all to charge repair of valves, saddles and guides of plugs to the skilled expert.
In garage conditions it is possible to carry out dismantling, washing, check, assembly of a head of the block of cylinders and its delivery in service of car service of the dealer or in specialized workshops for repair of valves.
In the service center or specialized workshops the following types of works are carried out: removal of springs and valves, grinding or replacement of valves and guides of plugs, check and replacement of springs, lock rings and crackers (as required), replacement of maslootrazhatelny caps, replacement of details of the valve, check of height of a spring in a free state. At the deviation from planeness exceeding norm, the head of the block of cylinders should be proshlifovat.
After performance of check and repair of valves and their details by skilled personnel the head of the block of cylinders is completely restored. Before installation of a head of the block of cylinders wash out it once again to remove the remains of abrasive material from grinding of a head or grinding in of valves. At an opportunity blow all channels and openings compressed air.
Grinding of valves
If facets of valves and a saddle have insignificant wear or new valves on not worn-out saddles are installed, then valves need to be ground in to saddles. Operation of grinding in is carried out as follows.
Apply a small amount of rough abrasive paste on a saddle facet. Insert the valve into the directing plug and, turning and pressing the valve, grind in it to a saddle. Performance of this work requires adaptation in the form of a tube with the piece of a rubber hose inserted inside. Grinding in can be carried out also the electric drill, having inserted this device in a cartridge. In the course of grinding in periodically raise the valve for check of result and redistribution of pritirochny material.
When on a head of the valve or a facet of a saddle the equal, continuous corbel is formed, remove the remains of rough abrasive paste and continue grinding in by fine paste.
After grinding in of all valves to saddles carefully wash out kerosene of the place of grinding in for removal of the remains of an abrasive, wipe with rags and at an opportunity blow compressed air. The abrasive remains in a head of the block of cylinders can cause the increased wear of details.
It should be noted that at excessive grinding in of old valves the arrangement of a corbel can be broken and become inadmissible. If grinding in of new valves to old saddles is carried out, excessive grinding in can lead to formation of "pockets".

Assembly of a head of the block of cylinders
Before assembly it is necessary to be convinced of purity of a head of the block of cylinders irrespective of, repairs in auto repair shop or in garage conditions were made.
If the head of the block of cylinders was handed over in a workshop for repair of valves, then valves will be already installed into place assembled with all details.
Establish on the new maslootrazhatelny caps directing plugs of valves. You carry out landing of maslootrazhatelny caps to the directing plugs by easy blows of the hammer to a mandrel. Avoid a cap provorachivaniye at its landing, you watch that it evenly got on the plug, otherwise consolidation of cores of valves is not provided.
Carefully install valves not to damage maslootrazhatelny caps, the lower basic washers of springs, springs, plates and lock rings.
Squeeze a valve spring by means of adaptation and establish crackers. Release a spring and be convinced that crackers entered the top flute of a core of the valve. If necessary, before removing adaptation, grease crackers with jellied lubricant for their best keeping.
Install the camshaft.
Oil fresh engine yokes assembled with shaft. Establish yokes with shaft and tighten bolts the required moment in the set sequence.

Removal of pistons and rods
Before removal of pistons the top part of each cylinder needs to be processed development to remove a fillet. Study the instruction of the manufacturer attached to the tool. If not to execute this operation, then at removal of the piston with a rod breakage of the piston is possible. If the fillet is too big and breakage of the piston during removal is inevitable, then boring of cylinders and replacement of pistons with repair sizes will be required.
Before removal of rods check their axial side play. Install the indicator so that his leg coincided with an axis of a bent shaft and concerned a side surface of a cover of the first rod.
Take a rod aside of a back part of the engine, having made the maximum effort, and in this situation set an indicator scale to zero. Then move a rod forward on the maximum distance and consider indications of the indicator. The axial side play is equal to distance to which the rod moved. If the axial side play of a rod exceeds the value given in specifications it it is necessary to replace. Measure by just the same way an axial side play at other rods.

Fig. 3.32. Use of the probe for measurement of an axial side play of a rod: 1 – rod cover; 2 – place of measurement of a side play


As an alternative it is possible to use in a different way measurements of an axial side play for what insert the probe between a rod and a surface of a persistent flange of a bent shaft (fig. 3.32). Increase probe thickness until the side play does not disappear. The size of an axial side play is equal to the final thickness of the probe.
Check existence of tags on rods and covers of rods. If tags are absent, then their nakernita so that the number of tags corresponded to number of the cylinder in which this rod is established.

Fig. 3.33. Block of cylinders, bent shaft, inserts and rods: 1 – piston rings; 2 – rod and piston finger; 3 – inserts of the conrod bearing; 4 – rod cover; 5 – bent shaft and needle bearing; 6 – insert of the radical bearing; 7 – cover of the radical bearing; 8 – block of cylinders


Weaken an inhaling of nuts, having turned off them on 1–2 turns. Uncover a rod of the first cylinder together with a connecting rod (fig. 3.33). Do not take a connecting rod from a cover. Put on pieces of rubber or plastic hoses bolts of fastening of a cover of a rod not to injure a neck of a bent shaft and wall of cylinders at extraction of a rod, push out the piston assembled with a rod through the top part of the cylinder. For this purpose use a wooden pro-rate, having rested it against the top connecting rod. If resistance to extraction of the piston is felt, then double-check completeness of removal of a fillet from the top part of the cylinder.
Repeat the procedure for other cylinders. After pistons with rods are removed from cylinders, uncover rods, take out connecting rods, establish covers into place and tighten nuts by hand.
Connecting rods are recommended to be taken only before assembly, thus casual damage of their working surfaces is prevented.

Removal of a bent shaft

Fig. 3.34. Use of the arrow indicator for measurement of an axial side play of a bent shaft


Before removal of a bent shaft check its axial side play. Install the indicator so that its measuring tip coincided with an axis of a bent shaft and concerned an end face of a shaft (fig. 3.34).
Take a bent shaft aside of a back part of the engine, having made the maximum effort, and in this situation set an indicator scale to zero. Then move a bent shaft forward on the maximum distance and consider indications of the indicator. The axial side play is equal to distance to which the shaft moved. If the axial side play exceeds the value given in specifications check wear of surfaces of persistent flanges of a shaft. If wear insignificant, a side play has to be compensated by installation of new radical bearings.
To execute measurement of an axial side play by means of the probe in the absence of the indicator not easy as persistent half rings of the average radical bearing of a bent shaft are available only from a saddle, and from a cover they are absent. Release each of bolts of fastening of covers of radical bearings on 1/4 turns to their free provorachivaniye by hand. Check marking on covers which has to correspond to number of the cylinder. Usually covers are numbered beginning from a forward part of the engine. If marking is absent, put tags with a core or a brand. On covers of radical bearings the arrows directed towards a forward part of the engine are cast.
Easy blows of the hammer through a soft pro-rate get moving forward covers and remove them from the block of cylinders. If necessary to uncover it is possible to insert into them bolts of fastening and to work with them as levers. Do not allow drop-out of the radical bearing if it remains in a cover.

Fig. 3.35. Use of a shock stripper for removal of the needle bearing from an end face of a bent shaft


Carefully take a bent shaft from the block of cylinders. It is recommended to carry out it together with the assistant as a shaft quite heavy. Install covers of radical bearings together with bearings on the block of cylinders in a former order and tighten bolts by hand. On models with the mechanical transmission by means of a shock stripper remove the directing needle bearing from an end face of a bent shaft (fig. 3.35).

Cleaning of the block of cylinders
Remove soft caps from the block of cylinders. For this purpose by means of the hammer and a mandrel press them in the block, and then get from openings, having picked up big flat-nose pliers.
Remove with the pallet all remains of material of laying from the block of cylinders, being careful not to damage a surface.
Uncover radical bearings and get bearings from the block of cylinders and covers. Sign to what cylinder the bearing, and also a detail from which it was taken belongs (from a cover or the block of cylinders); put them separately from each other.
By means of special face six-sided keys turn out and remove all carving caps of channels of the block of cylinders.
If the engine is strongly polluted, then it should be handed over in auto repair shop for washing with a strong vapor jet or in the hot camera. Almost in all shops is on sale of a brush for cleaning of oil channels and openings. Wash out internal channels a stream of warm water until water does not become pure, then carefully dry the block of cylinders and oil the processed surfaces that will protect them from corrosion. If there is an opportunity, blow compressed air the block and internal channels for drying process acceleration.
If the block is polluted slightly, it is enough to wash out of it a rigid brush and warm water with detergent. Do not feel sorry for time and perform this work carefully. Irrespective of a way of washing carefully clean oil channels and openings, dry the block and oil the processed surfaces.
Carving openings in the block of cylinders should be cleaned a tap that will provide correctness of indications of the moment of an inhaling at assembly. Cleaning by a tap will allow to clear carving openings of dirt, traces of corrosion and the remains of sealant, to restore a carving. At an opportunity blow openings a stream of compressed air for removal of the remains of material after cleaning by a tap. Carefully clear a carving of bolts of fastening of a head of the block of cylinders and covers of radical bearings.
Again establish covers of radical bearings and tighten bolts by hand.
Install new caps in the block of cylinders, previously having greased them with high-temperature sealant. Be convinced of correctness of landing of caps and lack of distortions, otherwise leaks are possible. Landing of caps requires the special tool. This operation can be executed with the same level of quality by means of the hammer and a mandrel which diameter corresponds to a cap opening.
If assembly of the engine is not carried out at present, cover the block of cylinders with a plastic cover that will protect it from pollution.

Check of technical condition of the block of cylinders
Carefully clear the block of cylinders and be once again convinced that fillets on the top edges of cylinders are completely removed.
Visually check absence on the block of cracks and traces of corrosion. Restore the stripped thread in openings. It is recommended to check tightness of the block of cylinders in the auto repair shops having the corresponding equipment. At detection of defects repair the block or replace it.
Check existence of scratches and zadir on the internal surfaces of cylinders.

Fig. 3.36. Places of measurement of internal diameter of the cylinder: directly under a fillet (X and Y), in the center and the lower part


Measure the internal diameter of the cylinder in top (directly under a fillet), the middle and lower part parallel to an axis of a bent shaft (fig. 3.36). Then take measurements at the same levels, but in the direction, perpendicular axes of a bent shaft. Compare results of measurement to values in specifications. If on the surfaces of cylinders there are strong teases and scratches or ovality and conicity of cylinders exceeds the established maximum permissible values, hand over the block in auto repair shop for boring and a honingovaniye. After repair pistons and rings of the repair sizes will be necessary.
If the condition of cylinders accepted wear of the cylinder and a gap between the cylinder and the piston do not exceed the established norms, then boring is not required. The honingovaniye remains the only necessary operation.
Before a honingovaniye establish covers of radical bearings of a bent shaft (without bearings) and tighten bolts the required moment.

Fig. 3.37. The surface of the cylinder after a honingovaniye has to be covered with a grid from the thin lines which are crossed at an angle about 60 °


The honingovaniye requires special adaptation with fine grinding heads, a large amount of oil, rags and the electric drill. Clamp adaptation in the electric drill, fix grinding heads and enter adaptation into the first cylinder. Well oil the surface of the cylinder, turn on the electric drill and periodically move it up and down in the cylinder. On a surface of walls of the cylinder the network of the thin lines which are crossed at an angle about 60 ° (fig. 3.37) has to be formed.
All the time plentifully grease the surface of the cylinder. At rotation do not take adaptation. After switching off of a drill continue to move it up and down to a full stop, then squeeze adaptation legs with grinding heads and take out from the cylinder. Remove oil from the surface of the cylinder and repeat operation on other cylinders. If adaptation is absent, this operation can be executed in auto repair shop for the acceptable payment. Satisfactory results turn out when using of the emery circle got on the electric drill or even when performing operation manually by an emery paper.
After performance of a honingovaniye chamfer the top edges of the cylinder a small file to prevent jamming of rings at installation of the piston.
All block of cylinders needs to be washed out repeatedly warm water with detergent to remove the remains of abrasive material which remained later a honingovaniye. Clean a brush all channels and wash out flowing water. After washing dry up the block of cylinders and oil veretenny all processed surfaces. Prior to assembly you store the block under a plastic cover.

Check of technical condition of the camshaft
After removal of the camshaft from the engine, cleaning and drying check shaft support for uniformity of wear, existence of development or a holding strap of metal. In the presence of damages of support the surface of bearings on a head of the block of cylinders and a cover too is probably damaged. If damages serious, then the camshaft, a cover of a shaft and a head of the block of cylinders are subject to replacement.

Fig. 3.38. Measurement of height of cams of the camshaft


Measure by a micrometer height of cams and compare to standard value to define their wear (fig. 3.38).
Check existence on cams of a vykrashivaniye of metal, scratches, dredging, development and uneven wear. If cams in good shape and diameters of cams do not exceed the established norm, then its further operation is admissible.

Fig. 3.39. Places of measurement of diameter of a forward neck of the camshaft


Measure by a micrometer diameter of average necks to define their wear and ovality. If ovality exceeds 0,5 mm, then the camshaft should be replaced. Measure diameter of a forward neck and internal diameter of a forward cover in two opposite directions, compare to standard value to define degree of wear (fig. 3.39).

Fig. 3.40. Check of a beating of the camshaft by means of the arrow indicator


The arrow indicator check a camshaft beating, previously having installed the camshaft on prisms (fig. 3.40).

Fig. 3.41. Measurement of an axial side play of the camshaft by means of the arrow indicator


Install the camshaft on a head of the block of cylinders and measure by the arrow indicator an axial side play, having displaced a shaft against the stop back, and then forward, as shown in fig. 3.41.
The gap for lubricant of the camshaft is checked at a stage of final assembly, after installation of a head of the block of cylinders and an inhaling of bolts. The interfaced surfaces of bearings of the camshaft have to be pure, without oil traces. Lay pieces of the calibrated plastic core on the surfaces of necks of the camshaft, having arranged them parallel to an axis, and tighten bolts of fastening of a cover of bearings the required moment. Turn off bolts and determine a gap for lubricant by the size of deformation of the calibrated plastic core, using the scale put on its packing. If the gap exceeds the established maximum permissible value, then the head of the block of cylinders and a cover of bearings of the camshaft are subject to replacement.

Check of technical condition of pistons and rods
Before check it is necessary to clear rods and pistons and to remove piston rings from the piston.

PREVENTION
Old piston rings when dismantling the engine are always subject to replacement.


Fig. 3.42. Use of special device for removal of piston rings


Carefully remove rings from the piston, using special adaptation (fig. 3.42). At removal of rings do not damage the surface of pistons. If special adaptation is absent, then rings can be removed by means of old probes or narrow metal strips. Carefully move apart a ring, enter between a ring and the piston of a plate and remove a ring, moving it on plates.
Repeat operation with other rings, without assuming that the lower ring got to the flute located above. As rings are subject to obligatory replacement, it is not necessary to pay attention to their casual breakage, but the experience gained at removal of rings very much is useful at installation of new rings on the piston.
Remove a deposit from the piston bottom. After removal of the top rough layer of a deposit clean the piston bottom a brush or an emery paper on a basis made of cloth.
Do not clean off the deposit remains the wire brush got on the electric drill as it can lead to an erosion of soft alloy from which pistons are cast at all.
By means of special adaptation remove a deposit from flutes of piston rings. If such adaptation is absent, it is possible to use the old broken piston ring. Delete only a deposit, being careful at the same time not to remove piston material. Try not to damage landing surfaces of flutes of rings. Be careful of cuts as edges of the broken ring sharp.
After removal of a deposit carefully wash out surfaces of flutes of rings solvent and carefully dry. Be convinced of purity of drainage oil grooves in an installation site of an oil scraper ring.
If traces of considerable wear are absent and boring of cylinders is not required, then pistons should not be changed. Normal wear is shown in the form of traces of uniform vertical development on the surface of friction of the piston and in the form of small weakening of landing of the top compression ring.
Carefully check existence of cracks on a piston skirt, lugs of a piston finger and airfields of piston rings.
Check existence of chips and zadir on the site of friction of a surface of a skirt of the piston, traces of a progar in the central part of the bottom of the piston, an obgoraniye of its wreath. If chips and teases are found, then it indicates a frequent overheat of the engine, one of the reasons of which can be a violation of normal process of combustion of fuel-air mix. In this case careful check of lubrication systems and cooling is required. The burn-out in the bottom of the piston demonstrates operation of the engine with the wrong installation of a corner of an advancing of ignition. As a rule, abnormal combustion (detonation) is the reason of an obgoraniye of the bottom of the piston. If the specified defects are found, it is required to define and remove their cause, otherwise serious breakages are possible.
Corrosion of the piston in the form of dredging demonstrates penetration into the combustion chamber (and also in a case) cooling liquid. Here again it is required to find and remove the cause, otherwise failures of the repaired engine are possible.

Fig. 3.43. Measurement of a gap of piston rings on height in piston flutes


Measure a gap between the platform of a flute of a ring and a piston ring for what insert a new ring into a flute and pass the probe between a flute and a ring (fig. 3.43). Check a gap in three-four places on length of all flute. Make sure that this ring corresponds to that flute in which will be established as the sizes of different flutes differ. If the gap exceeds extremely established, then the piston should be replaced.
Check a gap between the piston and the cylinder, having measured the corresponding diameters. Make sure that measurements are carried out on couple of interfaced details. Measure diameter of the piston on a skirt. The gap is defined by a difference of diameters of the cylinder and a skirt of the piston. If the gap exceeds maximum permissible, then the block of cylinders is subject to boring, and pistons and rings should be replaced repair. The gap between the piston and the cylinder can also be measured, but with a smaller accuracy, by means of the probe placed between the piston inserted into the cylinder and the cylinder.

Fig. 3.44. Rocking of the piston and a rod in opposite directions for check of a gap between a piston finger and a head of a rod


Check a gap between a piston finger and a head of a rod for what it is necessary to shake the piston and a rod in opposite directions (fig. 3.44). The notable side play will indicate the raised gap and need of repair of this connection. The piston assembled with a rod should be taken to repare for replacement of piston fingers, and also for boring under the repair sizes of a head of a rod and opening in the piston.
If it is necessary to remove pistons from rods for replacement of pistons or elimination of a side play of a piston finger, then it is necessary to hand over them in auto repair shop. At the same time it is necessary to check a bend and twisting of rods for what in workshops there is a necessary equipment. If installation of new pistons or rods is required, then it is not necessary to disconnect pistons from rods.
Check existence on rods of cracks and other damages. Uncover at this stage of conrod bearings, take bearings, wipe the landing surfaces of bearings on a cover of a rod and on a rod and check existence of cracks, scratches and zadir. After check collect a rod, having installed into place bearings, and tighten nuts by hand.

Check of technical condition of a bent shaft
Wash out a bent shaft solvent and carefully dry. Surely clean oil channels a rigid brush and wash out a strong stream of solvent. Remove the solvent remains, having blown channels compressed air. The solvent which remained in oil channels will dilute oil at the first launches of the engine that can cause serious damages. Check uniformity of wear of radical and conrod necks, existence on them of zadir, cracks or a local erosion. Check all bent shaft for existence of cracks and damages.

Fig. 3.45. Measurement of diameter of necks (radical and conrod) a bent shaft in two points (1 and 2) and in two opposite provisions (And yes In)


Measure by a micrometer diameters of radical and conrod necks, compare result to the values given in specifications. Check ovality of radical and conrod necks of a shaft, having measured their diameter in several points on a circle. Check conicity of necks for what measure diameter of a neck in places about counterbalances (fig. 3.45); compare results to the values given in specifications. If the micrometer is absent, then measurements can be taken in workshops for the acceptable payment.
In the presence of damages and also if ovality, conicity and wear of necks exceed the established maximum permissible values, the shaft should be handed over on regrinding in a specialized workshop. After repair of a shaft it is necessary to replace radical and conrod bearings repair.

Check of radical and conrod bearings
In spite of the fact that radical and conrod bearings at capital repairs of the engine are subject more necessarily to replacement, old bearings should be stored in the place of their installation for careful check as on wear tracks on these details it is possible to estimate technical condition of the engine.
Insufficient lubricant, availability of dirt and foreign particles, overload of the engine and corrosion are causes of destruction of bearings of a bent shaft. Irrespective of the reason which caused destruction of bearings it should be eliminated before final assembly of the engine to avoid repeated damages of these details.
When checking bearings they should be taken out from seats (from the block of cylinders, covers of radical bearings of a bent shaft, conrod covers and rods) and to spread out on a pure surface in the same order in which they were established on the engine. It will allow to establish the corresponding support of a bent shaft in which the bearing underwent the increased wear.
Dirt and foreign particles get to the engine for various reasons: in the course of assembly, via filters or system of ventilation of a case, with oil. Often pollution include the metal shaving formed after machining of details of the engine or owing to wear during the normal operation of the engine. Sometimes at pollution there are remains of abrasive materials after carrying out pritirochny and grinding works, especially after carelessly carried out sink and cleaning. Irrespective of the origin reason foreign pollution usually take root into soft alloy of the bearing and are easily distinguishable. Large particles cannot take root into the bearing and lead to emergence of scratches and zadir on the surfaces of both the bearing, and necks of a bent shaft. The best way of elimination of the reason of such wear is careful washing of details and maintenance of faultless purity in the course of assembly of the engine. For prevention of premature wear it is also recommended to a thicket to change oil and filters.
Insufficient lubricant of the engine can be caused by a number of the interconnected reasons. An excessive overheat of the engine (causes oil fluidifying), overloads concern to them (cause expression of oil from the surface of bearings) and pressure decrease because of leak (emission) of oil (because of the raised gaps in bearings, wear of the oil pump, big frequency of rotation of a bent shaft). Blocking of oil channels, usually owing to not combination of lubricant openings in the bearing and details of its case becomes the reason of the accelerated wear of bearings of a bent shaft also that causes insufficient lubricant and failure. If insufficient lubricant is a cause of destruction, there is a wipe or expression of material of a covering of the bearing from a steel basis. Temperature increases so that from an overheat the steel basis of the bearing is painted in blue color, the possibility of deformation of covers of bearings and bolts of fastening of covers of rods is not excluded.
Durability of bearings of a bent shaft in many respects depends also on skills of driving and the mode of the movement. Bearings experience the raised strain at the movement with completely open butterfly valve, at long trips at small speeds and pro-slipping. At the raised loadings there is an expression of an oil film, bearings experience deformations for a bend at which microcracks (fatigue wear) are formed. As a rule, the covering of the bearing comes off a steel basis in the form of small particles. Trips on small distances can become the reason of corrosion wear of bearings as because of insufficient warming up the condensates and gases causing corrosion accumulate. These components collect in oil, causing formation of acids and insoluble rainfall. Such oil, arriving to bearings, causes their corrosion under the influence of acids therefore they collapse and fail.
Failure of bearings can be caused by also wrong installation in process of assembly of the engine. Too dense landing becomes the reason of an insufficient gap for lubricant and bad penetration of lubricant. The dirt and foreign particles which got under a reverse side of the bearing cause its uneven prileganiye and premature failure.

Installation of piston rings
Before installation of new piston rings it is necessary to check a gap in locks of rings. It is supposed that the gap between a ring and the platform of a landing flute is already checked and conforms to requirements.
Spread out pistons assembled with rods and new piston rings in such order that a set of rings corresponded to this cylinder on which the gap will be measured in the lock.

Fig. 3.46. Measurement of a gap in the lock of a piston ring


Insert the top ring into the first cylinder and push inside the piston bottom so that the ring in the cylinder became perpendicular to its axis. The ring has to be in the lower part of the cylinder in the situation corresponding to the lower dead point. The gap is measured in the lock of a piston ring by the probe (fig. 3.46). Compare result to the required value.
If the gap is more or less than established, repeat measurement to be convinced of a possibility of installation of a ring.
If the gap is too small, then it should be increased, otherwise in the course of operation of the engine end faces of a ring connect that can cause serious breakages. The gap in the lock of a piston ring can be increased, having carefully filed end faces a thin file. Clamp a file in a vice with soft sponges and carefully you move on it a ring, deleting excess material.
The gap can exceed established, but there have to be no more than 1 mm.
It is necessary to repeat measurement to be convinced of suitability of a ring.
Repeat measurements for each ring installed in the first cylinder and also for other rings installed in other cylinders.
After measurement of gaps in locks of rings and their adjustments rings can be installed on pistons.
The oil scraper ring is established by the first (the lowermost on the piston).

Fig. 3.47. Arrangement of elements of an oil scraper ring and locks: 1 – oil scraper ring; 2 – oil scraper ring (dilator); 3 – lower guide; 4 – dilator; 5 – top guide; 6 – piston finger


Fig. 3.48. Installation of elements of an oil scraper ring


This ring consists of three elements. Establish a divider/dilator (fig. 3.47) in a flute, then establish the lower guide of an oil scraper ring. At installation of guides it is impossible to use the device for installation of rings as their breakage is possible. Insert one end of a guide into a piston flute between a divider and the horizontal platform of a flute and, strongly holding it, bring a finger to a flute the second end of a ring (fig. 3.48). In the same way establish the second guide.
After installation of all elements of an oil scraper ring be convinced that the top and lower guides are freely turned in a flute. Place locks of an oil scraper ring according to fig. 3.47.
 The average ring is established by the following. On it a vyshtampovana a tag of "R" which has to be directed towards the piston bottom.

PREVENTIONS
Always operate according to the instruction on packing of piston rings, different manufacturers can have different designations.
Do not mix the top and lower compression rings as they have various profiles of cross section.

Fig. 3.49. An arrangement of tags on compression piston rings


Install the device for installation of piston rings, be convinced that tags are directed towards the piston bottom, and move the corresponding ring to an average flute of the piston (fig. 3.49). You do not part ring end faces on distance bigger, than it is required for its passing over the piston. Instead of adaptation it is possible to use metal strips.

Fig. 3.50. Provision of installation of compression rings and arrangement of their locks: 1 – lock of the top compression ring; 2 – lock of the lower compression ring; 3 – top compression ring; 4 – lower compression ring; 5 – piston finger


In the same way establish the top compression ring. Make sure that tags are directed up. Do not mix in places the top and lower compression rings. Arrange locks of rings according to fig. 3.50.

Installation of a bent shaft and check of gaps of radical bearings
Installation of a bent shaft is the first operation at assembly of the engine. The block of cylinders and a bent shaft have to be completely cleared, checked, proshlifovana or are chiseled under the repair sizes.
Arrange the block of cylinders so that its lower part was directed up.
Turn off bolts of fastening of covers of radical bearings and spread out them so that subsequently it was possible to establish on the former place.
Get from covers and the block of cylinders inserts of radical bearings if they still remained on places. Wipe surfaces of the lower and top inserts with the pure fabric which is not leaving pile. These details should be preserved in full purity.
Clear an external surface of new radical inserts and enclose them in saddles of the block of cylinders. Enclose the corresponding reciprocal inserts in covers. Make sure that the ledge on an insert coincides with selection on the block or on a cover.
Besides, the opening of the oil channel in the block has to be combined with a lubricant opening of an insert. Are not allowed installation of an insert in the place by blows of the hammer, drawing scratches. At this stage it is not required to grease an insert.
The insert with flanges needs to be established in a nest No. 3.
Wipe working surfaces of inserts in the block and radical necks of a bent shaft with the pure rags which are not leaving pile. Check or clear oil channels of a bent shaft as now the only way of an exit of any pollution – via new bearings.
At full confidence in purity of a shaft carefully put it back on inserts of radical bearings (it is recommended to carry out operation with the assistant).
Before final installation of a shaft it is necessary to check a lubricant gap in radical bearings.

Fig. 3.51. An arrangement of a piece of the calibrated plastic core at measurement of a gap of radical bearings of a bent shaft


Prepare several pieces of the calibrated plastic core which length is a little less than width of radical bearings, and put on one piece on each radical neck of a bent shaft parallel to its axis (fig. 3.51).
Clear surfaces of inserts in covers and establish covers in the place (do not mix them) so that shooters were directed towards a forward part of the engine. To touch plastic cores it is not allowed.
Tighten in three steps till the required moment bolts of fastening of covers, beginning an inhaling from the central bearing and continuing by the ends of a shaft. When performing this operation rotation of a shaft is not allowed.
Turn off bolts of covers and carefully lift covers of radical bearings. Arrange covers in the order corresponding to the place of their installation. It is inadmissible to violate the provision of cores and to rotate a bent shaft. If removal of a cover is complicated, then weaken its landing, having slightly knocked sideways with the hammer with brisk of soft material.

Fig. 3.52. Use of the scale put on packing for measurement of width of the deformed calibrated plastic core


Compare thickness of each of the deformed plastic cores to a scale on packing and determine the size of a gap (fig. 3.52). Compare to the required value.
If the gap does not correspond to established, repeat check to be convinced of the correct size of the installed radical bearings. Besides, be convinced that at measurements there were no pollution or oil between bearings and landing surfaces.
Carefully remove the remains of a plastic core from necks of a bent shaft and/or from the surfaces of radical bearings. Do not allow damage of surfaces of radical bearings.
Carefully take a bent shaft from the block of cylinders. Clear the working surfaces of radical bearings and apply on each of them a thin uniform layer of high-quality jellied lubricant with a disulfide of molybdenum or oil for assembly of the engine. Surely grease surfaces of persistent flanges of a shaft and the surface of friction of the persistent bearing.
Be convinced of purity of necks of a bent shaft, then install a shaft in the block of cylinders. Clear surfaces of inserts in covers and apply on each of them a thin film of jellied lubricant with a molybdenum disulfide. Establish covers on former places so that shooters were directed towards a forward part of the engine. Wrap bolts and tighten them the required moment, beginning from the central bearing and being displaced by the ends of a shaft. Tighten bolts in three steps.

Fig. 3.53. Use of a mandrel and the hammer for installation of the directing bearing in an end face of a bent shaft


On models with the automatic transmission in an end face of a bent shaft install the new directing bearing. Grease a cavity of a shaft and the external surface of the bearing with pure engine oil, install the bearing. Landing of the bearing is carried out by easy blows of the hammer to a mandrel (fig. 3.53). Put jellied lubricant in the bearing.
Turn several times a bent shaft by hand – the shaft has to rotate without notable jammings.
At the last stage check the arrow indicator an axial side play of a bent shaft.

Installation of pistons assembled with rods and check of gaps of conrod bearings
Before installation of pistons assembled with rods be convinced that walls of cylinders absolutely pure, are chamfered edges of cylinders, and the bent shaft is installed in the block of cylinders.
Uncover with a rod of the first the cylinder of the bearing. Remove old inserts of the conrod bearing and wipe with the pure fabric which is not leaving pile, landing surfaces of inserts in a core of a rod and a cover.
These surfaces have to be always absolutely pure.
Wipe the return surface of the top connecting rod and lay it on the place in a rod. Make sure that the ledge on an insert coincides with dredging on a rod. For landing of an insert it is inadmissible to use the hammer: it is necessary to observe extreme care not to damage a working surface of an insert.
At this stage lubricant of an insert is not required.
Wipe the return surface of the lower insert and enclose it in a rod cover. Be again convinced that the ledge on an insert coincides with dredging on a rod cover, do not grease an insert. It is very important that the interfaced surfaces of an insert and a rod in the course of assembly were absolutely pure, without oil traces.
Arrange locks of piston rings according to fig. 3.50, then put on pieces of rubber hoses bolts of covers of rods.
Oil pistons and rings pure engine and put on the piston a mandrel for compression of piston rings. Length of the speaker of the site of a skirt of the piston has to be about 6 mm to provide the correct entrance of the piston to the cylinder. Rings have to be most compressed.
Turn a bent shaft in the provision of the lower dead point in the first cylinder and oil cylinder walls engine.

Fig. 3.54. Installation of the piston in the cylinder: the tag of "F" has to be directed towards a forward part of the engine (a pulley of a bent shaft)


Turn the piston with a rod so that the arrow on the piston was directed towards a forward part of the engine; carefully enter the piston with a rod into the first cylinder against the stop of a mandrel in the block of cylinders. Slightly knock on the upper edge of a mandrel to provide uniform contact with the plane of the block of cylinders on all circle. If on the bottom of the piston there is no tag in the form of an arrow or dredging, then before installation of a mandrel orient the piston so that the tag of "F" on a lug of a finger was directed towards a forward part of the engine (a pulley of a bent shaft) (fig. 3.54).
Carefully knock with the wooden handle of the hammer on the piston bottom, directing a rod to the corresponding neck of a bent shaft. Piston rings can jump out of a mandrel before input in the cylinder therefore the mandrel always has to nestle on the block of cylinders. Carry out this operation carefully; immediately stop work if you feel any resistance at input of the piston in the cylinder. Define the reason of jamming and eliminate it then continue installation of the piston in the cylinder. It is impossible to make effort at installation of the piston in the cylinder as it is possible to break rings or the piston.
After installation of pistons in the cylinder it is necessary to measure a gap (between conrod bearings and necks of a shaft) and only after that to finalize covers.
Prepare a piece of the calibrated plastic core which length is a little less than width of the conrod bearing, and put it on a conrod neck of the first cylinder parallel to an axis of a bent shaft. The core should not block a lubricant opening in a shaft neck.
Clear in a surface cover, adjacent to inserts, remove hoses from bolts of fastening of covers and establish a cover. Make sure that tags on a cover and a rod are on the one hand. Wrap nuts and tighten them the required moment in three steps. During performance of this operation rotation of a bent shaft is not allowed.
Carefully uncover, without having damaged a plastic core. Compare thickness of the deformed plastic core to a scale on packing and determine the size of a lubricant gap. Compare to the required value. If the gap does not correspond to demanded, repeat check to be convinced of the correct size of the installed conrod bearings. Also check diameter of an internal opening in a rod and be convinced that at measurement of a gap there were no pollution or oil between bearings and landing surfaces.
Carefully remove the remains of the deformed core from necks of a bent shaft and/or from the surfaces of conrod bearings. Do not allow damage of surfaces of conrod bearings, delete the remains with a forefinger or a wooden shovel. Make sure that the working surfaces of conrod bearings absolutely pure, apply on bearing inserts a thin uniform layer of high-quality jellied lubricant with a disulfide of molybdenum or oil for assembly of the engine. For access to a surface of the top connecting rod it is necessary to push the piston in the cylinder, previously having put on pieces of hoses cover bolts.
Attract a rod to a neck of a bent shaft, remove hoses from bolts of covers, establish covers and tighten nuts the required moment. Tighten nuts in three steps.
Repeat the described procedure for pistons and rods of other cylinders. In the course of assembly you watch purity of the interfaced surfaces of a rod and connecting rods. You watch that each piston corresponded to this cylinder, and dredging, the arrow or a tag of "F" at installation of the piston were sent to the cylinder towards a forward part of the engine. Remember that before installation of a mandrel for compression of rings the cylinder has to be plentifully greased.
At final assembly of rods with covers it is necessary to grease also the working surfaces of bearings.
After the correct installation of pistons with rods turn by hand a bent shaft on several turns, the shaft has to rotate without jammings.
At the last stage of assembly it is necessary to check an axial side play of a rod.

Installation of a back epiploon and back cover
Grease with a thin layer of engine oil an external surface of an epiploon and establish an epiploon in a nest of a back cover. By means of a mandrel evenly press an epiploon before full landing. Epiploon sponges at installation have to be directed inside.
Apply a sealant layer on laying and contact surfaces of a back cover.
Grease with a thin layer of engine oil a working edge of an epiploon, establish into place laying and screw bolts. Tighten bolts the required moment.

Fig. 3.55. Cutting of a part of the laying supporting dimensions of a back cover


Accurately cut off the part of laying supporting dimensions of a back cover which comes on the interfaced surface of the oil pallet (fig. 3.55).
 Engine balance of assembly at capital repairs
Before assembly prepare all necessary new spare parts, laying and consolidations, and also the following tools and devices:
– standard tool kit;
– a dynamometer key with a head "1/2";
– device for installation of piston rings;
– a mandrel for compression of rings;
– pieces of rubber or plastic hoses for installation on rod cover bolts;
– the plastic calibrated core;
– set of probes;
– file;
– fresh engine oil;
– sealant like RTV;
– the kontrovochny structure interfering self-unscrewing of threaded connections (the blocking liquid).
To save time and labor costs, assembly is recommended to be carried out in the following order:
– bent shaft and radical bearings;
– the directing bearing (on models with the mechanical transmission);
– pistons assembled with rods;
– back epiploon and cover of an epiploon;
– oil pump and oil receiver;
– oil pallet;
– a flywheel with the coupling mechanism;
– forward arm of fastening of the engine;
– water pump;
– head of the block of cylinders, camshaft, mechanism of the drive of valves;
– forward cover and forward epiploon;
– pulley of a gear belt of the camshaft and natyazhitel;
– gear belt and casings of a belt;
– fuel pump;
– back cover;
– cover of a head of the block of cylinders;
– sensor of emergency pressure of oil;
– oil filter;
– the thermostat with the case;
– distributor of ignition, candle, high-voltage wires;
– pipes of a supply of cooling liquid with hoses;
– inlet and final collectors;
– generator and arms;
– system of decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases.

Launch of the engine after repair and its running in
After the end of assembly of the engine check the level of oil and cooling liquid twice.
By the turned-out candlelight and the high-voltage wire of the coil of ignition connected to "weight" turn a bent shaft until registration of pressure of oil the sensor (if it is provided by a design) or before switching off of a control lamp of pressure of oil.
Screw spark plugs, put on tips of wires and connect a high-voltage wire of the coil of ignition.
Make sure that the butterfly valve of the carburetor is closed; then launch the engine. The engine has to be launched later the short period necessary for filling of the carburetor by gasoline.
Right after launch of the engine it is necessary to set the mode of the increased idling rotation frequency to provide the elevated pressure of oil in the lubrication system and bystry warming up of the engine up to the working temperature. In process of warming up of the engine you watch closely emergence of leaks of oil and cooling liquid.
Switch off ignition and check levels of oil and cooling liquid. Again launch the engine and check installation of the moment of ignition and frequency of idling. If necessary adjust them.
Make a trip on the section of the highway with not heavy traffic, accelerate the car from the speed of 50 km/h to 90 km/h, having pressed an accelerator pedal before its full opening. Then release an accelerator pedal, having slowed down the car the engine to the speed of 50 km/h.
Repeat the cycle of 10-12 times. At the same time occurs extra earnings of piston rings to walls of cylinders. Double-check levels of oil and cooling liquid.
The first 1000 km of a run do not subject the engine to big loadings (move with a small speed), periodically checking oil level. In the period of a running in the raised oil consumption is possible.
After the run of 1000-1200 km replace oil and an oil filter, tighten bolts of fastening of a head of the block of cylinders and check gaps between valves and yokes.
At a run of the subsequent several hundred kilometers conduct the car in the normal mode, avoiding too big and too small loadings.
Later 4000 km of a run replace oil and an oil filter again, after that it is considered that the engine passed a running in.